Treaty of Guaranty between the United Netherlands, France, and Great Britain, concluded at the Hague, June 7/17, 1609. Ratification by the States General, June 6/16, 1609. [Ratification by France July 16, and by Great Britain July 10/20, 1609.]
Among the matters treated of at the Hague during the summer of 1607 were alliances between France and the United Netherlands, and England and the United Netherlands, to guarantee the observance of the peace then being negotiated between the States General of the United Provinces and Spain.1 The Dutch greatly desired these alliances; and the French, and ultimately the English, were ready to become their confederates if safeguarded against a consequent embroilment with Spain.
By the defensive alliance concluded on January 23, 1608,2 the King of France promised to help the States to obtain a satisfactory peace with Spain, to protect them against its infringement, and, if necessary for this purpose, to send them 10,000 infantry for as long as required. In return the States agreed, if the king were attacked, to supply him with 5000 infantry or with ships of war, equipped and manned, and of not less than 200 or 300 tons burden. Neither party, after having received aid from the other, should make a treaty with an aggressor without the other's consent. The similar treaty between England and the United Provinces, signed June 16/26, 1608, provided that in case of violation of the peace, the King of England should aid the States with 20 well-equipped ships of from 300 to 600 tons, and with 6000 infantry and 400 cavalry, yearly. If any of England's dominions were attacked, the States should send the king an equal naval force, and assist him yearly with 4000 infantry and 300 cavalry.3 This Anglo-Dutch alliance was obnoxious to the King of Spain,4 who, during the negotiations, remonstrated against England's occupation of Virginia, perhaps in order to impress____________________