European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies to 1648

By Frances Gardiner Davenport | Go to book overview

34.
Treaty, between Great Britain and France signed at Susa and London, April 14/24, 1629. Ratification by the King of France, July 4, 1629. [Ratification, by the King of Great Britain, June 11, 1629.]

INTRODUCTION.

The failure of Charles I. of England to fulfill the conditions of the contract of marriage between him and the sister of Louis XIII. of France, resulted in friction between the two courts. Further irritation was caused by the refusal of France to enter the league signed at the Hague against the House of Austria;1 and, in 1626, by her conclusion of a treaty with Spain.2 The growing ill-will was heightened by commercial disputes3 arising from England's seizure, following provisions of the treaty of Southampton,4 of French ships and merchandise employed in the Spanish trade; by retaliatory arrests of English ships and goods on the part of France; by England's interference in behalf of the Huguenots of Rochelle, and by her jealousy of Richelieu's endeavors to strengthen French sea-power.

On March 20, 1627, France and Spain concluded an alliance which provided for an attack upon England by their combined fleets.5 Nine days later, Buckingham was empowered to grant letters of reprisal against the French; a month later to grant letters of marque as well.6 In June, an English fleet sailed to relieve Rochelle.

The war thus begun offered England an opportunity to drive the French from Canada and Acadia and occupy them herself. For this purpose, in 1628, David Kirke and his brothers, having obtained letters of marque and a royal commission, captured and destroyed French vessels in the gulf and

____________________
1
Cf. Doc. 33, note 29. Gardiner, History of England, 1603-1642 VI. 37-44.
2
Dumont, Corps Diplomatique, tom. V., pt. II., pp. 487 ff. On this treaty of Monzon, see E. Rott, Histoire de la Représentation Diplomatique de la France auprès des Cantons Suisses ( 1900, etc.), tom IV., pt. I., pp. 47 ff.
3
These were the principal causes according to a manuscript entitled "The causes of the war with France" ( P. R. O., Treaty Papers, France, no. 10).
4
Doc. 33, arts. 20-22.
5
Mémoires du Cardinal de Richelieu, in Michaud and Poujoulat, Nouvelle Collection des Mémoires, 2e sér., tom. VII., p. 446; Mémoires de Messire François Duval, Marquis de Fontenay-Mareuil, same collection, 2e sér., tom. V., p. 185.
6
Rymer, Foedera, XVIII. 861, 887. Cf. also ibid., p. 1052. According to R. G. Marsden, the distinction between letters of marque and letters of reprisal seems not recognized until after the peace with Spain in 1630. Law and Custom of the Sea, I. ( Navy Records Society, 1915), pp. xxvi, xxvii. See also pp. 406, 407 for notes on the letters of marque and reprisal issued during this war.

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