|1.||Modern Socialism finds its justification in the principles of universal evolution, and its hope for the future is based upon its interpretation of the past.|
|2.||The earliest human society was based upon kinship and primitive communism. From these beginnings Society had slowly evolved into the complex world civilization of to-day.|
|3.||The main stages of social evolution are savagery, barbarism and civilization. Civilization begins with the destruction of kinship organization and the development of written language.|
|4.||Ancient civilization was the possession of the few and had its economic basis in slave labor. Modern civilization is the possession of the many and is based upon machine production.|
|1.||Why do modern Socialists consider the principle of evolution as a necessary part of their theory?|
|2.||What special significance do Socialists find in the "mutation theory" of De Vries?|
|3.||What is meant by the "social mind"?|
|4.||Explain the probable origin of the clan or gens.|
|5.||Give examples illustrating the survival of the spirit of primitive communism.|
|6.||What was the probable origin of private property?|
|7.||What are the characteristic features of each of the stages of savagery? Of barbarism?|
|8.||What are the essential features of civilized society?|
|9.||What are the essential differences between ancient and modern civilization?|
Darwin Charles, Origin of Species. Descent of Man.
De Hugo Vries, Species and Varieties, their Origin by Mutation.
Engels F., Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State.