THE SECOND new area of concern for the police after 1900 was Hudson Bay. This region had had, of course, a very long history before the Canadian government bestirred itself to think about it. The bay and its coastal areas had been fairly well known since Henry Hudson explored them in the summer of 1610. Many of the names of the geographical features of the bay are now over three hundred and fifty years old; Cape Wolstenholme and Digges Island, for instance, were both named after patrons of Hudson's voyage. 1 Though the contact period in the region has been of a much longer duration than in the western Arctic, Hudson Bay presents some noteworthy parallels. Both the delta and the bay had first been developed economically by the Hudson's Bay Company. Both had a mixed population of Indians and Inuit. The two regions had both been turned over to Canada shortly after Confederation (although the Mackenzie Delta was not part of the original Rupert's Land), and there were foreign whaling operations in Hudson Bay similar to those in the Beaufort Sea. The threat to Canadian sovereignty, though less severe than in the western Arctic, was still present in Hudson Bay, there affecting territorial waters rather than land.
Two nations dominated the whaling industry of northeastern Canada. A Scottish fleet came out each summer to hunt whales in the waters of Baffin Bay; the Americans operated in Hudson Bay, on the west side, near and around Southampton Island. They had a wintering station on the coast of the bay at Cape Fullerton. The influence of these whalers on the Inuit of Hudson Bay was less deleterious than that of the Mackenzie Bay whalers on the Inuit of the western Arctic, insofar as there were