higher than Washington, D. C. Sentencing is also more severe and consistent in Newark, than in Philadelphia or Washington (13, pp. 548-549).
The major finding of the above study was that the Weintraub policy may work: gambling laws can be enforced, the cost of money and manpower may not be prohibitive, and high conviction rates can be obtained, especially if prosecutors are willing to try cases.
An important law enforcement tool was given to police in New Jersey in January 1969, when the legislature passed a strong wiretapping law. Numerous wiretaps were used against illegal gambling operators. The number of arrests, convictions, and prison sentences significantly increased. In the first several months after the law was passed, both high echelon gamblers and low-level operators were arrested. Within a year, however, an interesting phenomenon took place: major crime figures developed countermeasures that insulated themselves from arrest. They hired housewives and unemployed salesmen for example, to "sit on phones" to take bets. If arrests were made, these amateurs could easily be replaced with a minimum amount of disruption to the gambling operation. Although the number of arrests increased, it is doubtful whether the wiretap law had a major impact on syndicated gambling organizations.
Evading wiretaps may be an insight into the cleverness and intelligence of the leaders of gambling syndicates. It would not surprise anyone to discover that major "mob" figures employ the most sophisticated management and investment techniques. Millions in untaxed dollars, collected every year, provide an extraordinary cash flow. It is both intriguing and disconcerting to contemplate that the "bad guys" may be smarter, better organized, and more efficient than the "good guys."
The main theme of this chapter is the serious constraints existing upon the enforcement of gambling laws. While other laws are also difficult to enforce, there are few offenses that are subject to such a unique combination of constraints. Gambling organizations, with their tremendous profits, are an institution