The gambling situation is complicated and is extremely difficult to study in its natural context. When viewed molecularly, the molar behavior consists of a constant flow of rewarded and punished trials. The parameters of reward and punishment which exist on each trial are influenced by both the recent previous trials, as well as historical experience with reinforcement and punishment. This latter influence, in humans, is reflected in the person's locus of control. However, in order to understand the complex interaction among schedules of reward and punishment and historical experiences with other reinforcement schedules, it may be necessary to construct a laboratory model or analogue of the gambling situation to systematically examine the variables affecting gambling behavior. Only when each influence is systematically combined and manipulated can functional laws be stated. Much more work is needed toward these ends.
Azrin, N. H. and Holz, W.: "Punishment", In Horning, W. K. (Ed.): Operant Behavior. New York, Prentice-Hall, 1966.
Ferster, C. B. and Skinner, B. F.: Schedules of Reinforcements. New York, Prentice-Hall, 1957.
Freud, S.: "Character and anal eroticism". In Strachey, J. (Ed.): The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London, Hogarth Press, 1953.
Freud, S.: "Dostoyevsky and parricide". In Strachey, J. (Ed.): The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London, Hogarth Press, 1953.
Fuller, P. "Gambling". In Fuller, P. and Halliday, L. (Eds.): The Psychology of Gambling. New York, Harper and Row Publishers, 1975.
Honig, W. and Staddon, J.: Handbook of Operant Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, 1977.
Phares, E.: Locus of Control in Personality. Morristown, Silver Burdett, 1976.
Rotter, J.: "Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement". Psychological Monographs, 80( 1):1-28, 1966.
Weiner, B.: Theories of motivation. Chicago, Markham Publishing, 1972.