Cross-Cultural Neuropsychological Assessment: Theory and Practice

By Victor Nell | Go to book overview

Chapter 9
Buds, Flowers, Fruits: Potential, Performance, and Test Administration

In a 19261 paper, Vygotsky (chap. 3) broke with three central tenets of the psychology of his time: that IQ is immutable, that learning necessarily trails behind development, and that if children's mental functions have not matured to the extent that they are capable of learning a particular subject, then no instruction will prove useful. "Development or maturation is viewed as a precondition of learning, but never the result of it" ( 1988, p. 80). Vygotsky went on to propose a radically new approach that distinguishes between the actual developmental level of the child, and the level determined by intellectual testing.

The testing looks backward, argued Vygotsky, at development that has already been completed: This means that if children barely miss an independent solution of a problem -- for example, if they solve the problem after the teacher has initiated the solution, or after leading questions have been asked that indicate how the problem might be solved -- then the solution is not regarded as part of the child's mental development (p. 85). On the contrary, commented Vygotsky: "What children can do with the assistance of others might be in some sense even more indicative of their mental development than what they can do alone" ( 1988, p. 80).

Vygotsky then defined his central developmental construct, the zone of proximal development (the ZOPED), as the distance between the child's actual developmental level during independent problem solving, and the child's level of potential development revealed by problem solving under adult guidance or when working with more competent members of the child's own age group. This notion of "distance" at once turns the exam-

____________________
1
Reprinted as chapter 6 of Mind in Society ( 1988a).

-159-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Cross-Cultural Neuropsychological Assessment: Theory and Practice
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 289

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.