The Foundations of Ohio - Vol. 1

By Beverley W. Bond Jr. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER XI
The Indian Wars

THE founding of settlements on the north bank of the Ohio inevitably forced the United States to make a final adjustment of the Indian problem in the Ohio country. The chief tribes, the Delawares, the Shawnees, the Wyandots and the Mingoes, had not supported whole-heartedly the treaties of Fort McIntosh and Fort Finney with their extensive land cessions, and they became greatly agitated when Hutchins began his surveys in the Seven Ranges. They were still more disturbed over the early settlements on the north bank of the Ohio, which had traditionally been theirs ever since the Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768. Thus these Ohio tribes were ripe for British intrigues of which the obvious aim was to hold the rich fur trade, and not, like the American policy, to establish settlements. Moreover, in the western posts, especially Niagara and Detroit, which they still retained in disregard of the Peace Treaty of 1783, the British possessed exceedingly favorable centers for intrigue and trade with the Indians of the Ohio country. They could also rely upon the Miami Confederacy in the Wabash Valley to favor the English, while to the eastward the Iroquois, under the leadership of Joseph Brant, were apparently definitely inclined toward the British cause.1 Small wonder then that the Ohio Indians under such influences turned to the British for protection in face of the continual encroachments of the Americans upon their lands, and the Ohio country became the coveted prize in a war of wits between the British and the Americans.

Indian hostility steadily grew, as the tribes realized the true import of American claims under the treaties of Fort McIntosh and Fort Finney, along with the Peace Treaty. A general council, which assembled on the Detroit River late in 1786, voiced a wide-

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1
AE., États Unis, 33: 275-6.

-312-

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The Foundations of Ohio - Vol. 1
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Editor''s Introduction v
  • Table of Contents ix
  • List of Illustrations xi
  • List of Maps xiii
  • Editor''s Introduction to Volume I xv
  • Preface xvii
  • Chapter I- The Ohio Country 3
  • Chapter II- The Ohio Aborigines 34
  • Chapter III- The Coming of the French 60
  • Chapter IV- The English Advance 87
  • Chapter V- The French vs. the English 115
  • Chapter VI- The Final Struggle 141
  • Chapter VII- The English in Control 165
  • Chapter VIII- The British vs. the Americans 200
  • Chapter IX- The Americans Triumphant 238
  • Chapter X- The First Settlements 275
  • Chapter XI- The Indian Wars 312
  • Chapter XII- The Spread of Settlement 349
  • Chapter XIII- The Beginnings of Government 396
  • Chapter XIV- The First Fruits of the Ordinance 437
  • Index 477
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