In the years since publication of the first edition of this work, change has continued at a significant pace within Europe accompanied by numerous challenges integral to the process of modernization and the establishment of new status. Significant developments have occurred in social and cultural affairs as well as in the diplomatic, political, and economic realms. Because our focus is on the latter group of factors, which we believe are fundamental to understanding the former group, we have included in this edition the word political in the subtitle. Robert English has joined us in the preparation of this edition; we extend our appreciation to Charles P. Issawi, who was unable to participate this time around, and to Corinne Manning Black for her encouragement.
We also again owe thanks to the individuals and corporations identified in the preface to the first edition. To that list, we would add the name of Lisa A. Tucker, the wife of Robert English and a cogent observer and reporter on Eastern Europe. Robert Williams, history editor at Westview Press, has been most supportive. Ryan Goldberg, our project editor, Ida May B. Norton, copy editor, and the staff of Westview were truly helpful; their excellent contributions are greatly appreciated.
Robert D. English Jonathan E. Helmreich Paul C. Helmreich A. James McAdams