seen in retrospect as warning signs that all was not well in Europe as it entered the first decades of the twentieth century.
Yet it also must be recognized that the course of European history from the fourteenth through the nineteenth centuries had created a situation in which, viewed from almost any aspect or angle one might choose, European nations did indeed hold preeminent positions of power, wealth, and influence. In European eyes, this patent supremacy thoroughly justified their collective view of themselves as the patricians of the human race, destined permanently to lead and administer the rest of the world. Not only was this their manifest destiny, but it promised a future, they were sure, that would clearly be to the benefit of all concerned.
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_____, Patterns of Modernity, 2 vols. ( 1987).
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_____, Modernization: Latecomers and Survivors ( 1972).
Von T. H. Laue, The World Revolution of Westernization: The Twentieth Century in Global Perspective ( 1988).
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