of these areas colonial peoples had made important contributions to the war effort, and now they sought the ending of colonial ties as their reward. In seeking to implement this goal they received the open support of the Soviet Union and the tacit blessing of the United States. It may not have been fully recognized in 1945, but the age of Europe's imperial dominance of the world was over. It would take some years, much anguish, and considerable bloodshed before all concerned came to accept this judgment. But in 1945 the verdict was essentially already in.
Europe, battered, destroyed, and disillusioned, lay prostrate under the direct or indirect influence and control of those who held power in Washington and Moscow. Its future seemed bleak, its problems massive, and its spirit one of deep pessimism. Yet, like the phoenix, Europe would rise again from the ashes to new heights of well-being and prosperity. Countries that formerly possessed primarily agricultural economies would industrialize significantly. More highly developed nations would explore the parameters of advanced or even postindustrial society. New patterns of economic and political relationships would be established in the international arena. In domestic politics leaders and parties would test a variety of arrangements in search of the best tools both for facilitating and controlling the scientific and technological revolution. They would also seek ways of dealing with the tensions of modern mass societies whose governments were expected, despite the size of the societies governed, to be responsive to individual concerns. How all this came about and why certain paths were chosen are the central concerns of this volume.
Armstrong, A., Unconditional Surrender: The Impact of the Casablanca Policy upon World War II ( 1961).