urban share of the population from one-third in 1950 to two-thirds in the 1980s. As a member of the Nordic Council and an associate member of the EFTA, Finland more than doubled its foreign trade in the 1950s and 1960s.
At the onset of the 1990s, the government's chief economic concern was to cool the overheated expansion of production sufficiently to avoid inflation. This worry was soon replaced by rising unemployment. Exports to the EU increased sharply, aided by a currency devaluation. Inflation was tamed and the economy grew. Despite popular suspicion that budget restrictions might affect welfare programs, the Rainbow Coalition steered course to join the EMU at its inauguration, believing that to be the sole Nordic state in the EMU would strengthen Finland's position within the EU. Finland's economic orientation had turned decidedly toward the West. Clearly, too, Finland's economic development since the war's end and the skilled tightrope walking of its diplomats amid the pitfalls of the Cold War had won the admiration of other countries, which saw these achievements as evidence of the independence and moderation of the Finnish people.
Bader, W. B., Austria Between East and West, 1945-1955 ( 1966).
Bauer, R. A., The Austrian Solution: International Conflict and Cooperation ( 1982).
Fitzmaurice, J., Austrian Politics and Society Today: In Defence of Austria ( 1990).
Hankel, W., Prosperity Amidst Crisis: Austria's Economic Policy and the Energy Crunch ( 1981).
Pelinka, A., Austria: Out of the Shadow of the Past ( 1998).
Shell, K. L., The Transformation of Austrian Socialism ( 1962).
Steiner, K. (ed.), Tradition and Innovation in Contemporary Austria ( 1982).
Sully, M., Political Parties and Elections in Austria ( 1981).