testants; it may have leaned one way or another (compare the orientations of Finland and Switzerland). But in some cases it proved a useful tool in reducing areas of conflict ( Austria, Finland, Sweden).
Removal of bipolar alternatives curiously did not enhance international stability. Disappearance of threat from one direction eliminated the need (absent some hegemonic demand) to acquiesce to the remaining superpower. Separate agendas and animosities could be pursued. For many small states, the putative ending of the Cold War afforded opportunity to focus on domestic issues and regional affairs. Defense spending might be reduced -- depending on regional rivalries -- and larger issues of international stability left to states with greater budgets and more extended interests.
Above all, the balance sheet for the small states of Europe since 1945 shows that the trend has inexorably been one of commitment to economic and political modernization, either consciously chosen or forced by circumstances. This trend has been accompanied by substantive moves toward increased democracy, whether in the form of democratic elections in once authoritarian states or in the form of increased involvement in decisionmaking by all sectors of the public in states that were already well along the democratic path before the war.
Arango, E. R., Spain: Democracy Regained, 2d ed. ( 1995).
Baklanoff, E. N., The Economic Transformation of Spain and Portugal ( 1978).
Braga de J. Macedo, Portugal Since the Revolution: Economic and Political Perspectives ( 1981).
Bruneau, T. C., Politics and Nationhood: Post Revolutionary Portugal ( 1984).
Bruneau, T. C., and A. Macleod, Politics in Contemporary Portugal: Parties and the Consolidation of Democracy ( 1986).
Carr, R., and J. P. Fusi, Spain: Dictatorship to Democracy, 2d ed. ( 1979).
Clark, R. P., The Basques: The Franco Years and Beyond ( 1979).