Children's Development within Social Context: Research and Methodology - Vol. 2

By Lucien T. Winegar; Jaan Valsiner | Go to book overview
1988). Furthermore, Piaget's model is not, and has no logical room for, a metarecursiveness: All construction is via equilibration, and, although equilibration can take several forms ( Piaget, 1985), there is no allowance in the model for the construction of new procedures of equilibration per se ( Bickhard, 1988).
CONCLUSIONS
The function of scaffolding and the developmental field of self-scaffolding are ubiquitous and fundamental to all of development. The theoretical modeling of these phenomena, however, requires several specific theoretical prerequisites that, although reasonable and seemingly obvious when specified, are almost nowhere jointly available in the contemporary developmental literature. Functional scaffolding and self-scaffolding, then, form not only an interesting field of development and perspective on development, they also constitute powerful and clear constraints--selection pressures--on developmental theory in general.
APPENDIX
In the spirit of not conforming to the willful blindness of psychology concerning psychoanalysis, and of making my own small contribution to the moral task of repairing some of the scientific integrity within psychology which psychoanalysis has corrupted, I point out that the list of flaws--conceptual, logical, empirical, and ethical--in the psychoanalytic literature is very long and is very serious:
1. The inability to transcend the unrealistic psychic energy model in the historical progression from Freud's original libido energy, to Hartmann's neutralized libido energy dedicated to the ego, to the object relations theorists' energies or energylike affects dedicated to "objects" or relationships, to Kohut's narcissistic energy dedicated to the self.
2. The historically parallel sequence of patchwork fix-ups ( Eagle, 1984; Gedo, 1979)--often just the dedication of an ad hoc new sort of energy--of flaws in the system in order to address realities of human nature that had been obvious to thinkers and astute grandmothers long before, such as the importance and pervasiveness of the reality functioning of the person (ego psychology), the intrinsic sociality of human existence (object relations theory), and the centrality of the self (self-psychology).
3. The marionette model inherent in psychoanalysis itself--the experiencing person is basically just a marionette of unconscious energies, memories, and representations ( Shapiro, 1981).

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