Children's Development within Social Context: Research and Methodology - Vol. 2

By Lucien T. Winegar; Jaan Valsiner | Go to book overview

pectations and demands placed on children in different social settings by different agents. Descriptive studies of children at home, at school, in recreational settings, and so forth are needed in order to specify more accurately the socialization experiences of children of various ages. Additionally, the range of agents should be expanded to include fathers, siblings, teachers, grandparents, peers, and so on, and the range of cultural and subcultural groups expanded as well. Once this is begun, then the difficult task of identifying the general processes that account for the relationship between context and consequences can be addressed.

Although this call for description sounds outdated and more characteristic of the thinking of the 1970s than of the 1990s (e.g., Bronfenbrenner, 1979; McCall, 1977), a critical assessment of the existing body of research still begs for the design of careful, descriptive studies designed to provide data on social experiences relevant to specific areas of child functioning. Without such data, psychologists may press forward with theories that have little relevance to the development of children in real life contexts.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to thank Melanie Killen for her helpful comments on the manuscript.


REFERENCES

Armsby, R. E. ( 1971). "A reexamination of the development of moral judgments in children". Child Development, 42, 1241-1248.

Baldwin, C. P., & Baldwin, A. L. ( 1970). "Children's judgments of kindness". Child Development, 41, 29-47.

Barnett, J. T. ( 1969). Development of children's fears: The relationship between three systems of fear measurement. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.

Bronfenbrenner, U. ( 1977). "Toward an experimental ecology of human development". American Psychologist, 32, 513-531.

Bronfenbrenner, U. ( 1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Costanzo, P. R., Coie, J. D., Grumet, J. F., & Farnill, D. ( 1973). "A re-examination of the effects of intent and consequences on children's moral judgments". Child Development, 44, 154-161.

Costanzo, P. R., & Dix, T. H. ( 1983). Beyond the information processed: Socialization in the development of attributional processes. In E. T. Higgins, D. N. Ruble, & W. W. Hartup (Eds.), Social cognition and social development: A sociocultural perspective. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Damon, W. ( 1977). The social world of the child. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Davidson, P., Turiel, E., & Black, A. ( 1983). "The effect of stimulus familiarity on the use of criteria and justifications in children's social reasoning". British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1, 49-65.

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