Realignment and Party Revival: Understanding American Electoral Politics at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century

By Arthur Paulson | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
See Plessy v. Ferguson 163 U.S. 537 ( 1896). Among state actions taken to keep African Americans from voting, I refer particularly to the literacy test in states where it had been illegal to teach African Americans to read, the poll tax, and the grandfather clause.
2.
See Walter Dean Burnham, Critical Elections and the Mainsprings of American Politics ( New York: Norton, 1970), pp. 77-79.
3.
This particular tactic was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in Smith v. Allwright 321 U.S. 649 ( 1944).
4.
The classic study of southern politics in the period of the solid south remains V. O. Key Jr., Southern Politics in State and Nation ( New York: Knopf, 1949). Key's study is all the more instructive because it was published the year after the climactic Democratic Convention of 1948, which passed the civil rights platform plank sponsored by Americans for Democratic Action (ADA), leading to the bolt of the Dixiecrats. Thus, Key reports about a solid south just about to come apart.
5.
On the life of William Jennings Bryan, see Paolo E. Coletta, William Jennings Bryan, Volume I: Political Evangelist 1860-1908 ( Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1964); Volume II: Progressive Politician and Moral Statesman 1909-1915; and Volume III: Political Puritan 1915-1925. See also Louis W. Koenig, Bryan ( New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1971); Lawrence W. Levine, Defender of the Faith, William Jennings Bryan: The Last Decade 1915-1925 ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1965); David J. Nordloh, William Jennings Bryan ( Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981); and Donald K. Springen, William Jennings Bryan: Orator of Small-Town America ( Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1991).
6.
See Louis W. Koenig, Bryan: A Political Biography of William Jennings Bryan ( New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1971), pp. 605-609.
7.
Coletta, Volume I, pp. 319-344.
8.
Ibid., p. 140.
9.
Unless otherwise noted, data on convention voting is drawn or derived from National Party Conventions, 1831-1996 ( Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1997). Data on Presidential primaries is drawn from Presidential Elections, 1789-1996 ( Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1997). Data is also drawn from Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris, Convention Decisions and Voting Records ( Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1973).
10.
National Party Conventions, p. 72. See also Robert W. Cherry, A Righteous Cause: The Life of William Jennings Bryan ( Boston: Little, Brown, 1985), pp. 125-127, and Koenig, Bryan, pp. 491-496.
11.
Robert K. Murray, The 103rd Ballot ( New York: Harper and Row, 1976), p. 23. Much of the following discussion on the 1920 Democratic National Convention draws on Murray's account, pp. 3-92.
12.
Ibid., p. 40.
13.
Ibid., p. 83.
14.
Whether an explicit deal was made promising the Democratic Vice Presidential nomination to Garner is unclear. An agreement can be attributed to a number of communications between the Roosevelt and Garner camps, including conversations between Joseph P. Kennedy and William Randolph Hearst, a Garner delegate from California; and between James A. Farley and Representative Sam Rayburn of

-71-

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