I am indebted to more people than I can properly thank for their assistance with this project. Of special assistance were the late T. Harry Williams of Louisiana State University who advised me on the initial stages of this study and the late Elizabeth Tyler Coleman of the University of Alabama, the late Milo B. Howard, Jr., of the Alabama State Department of Archives and History, William W. Rogers of Florida State University who encouraged me to finish it. The University of Alabama Faculty Research Committee has generously provided financial support. The capable staffs of the Alabama State Department of Archives and History, Rutherford B. Hayes Library, National Archives, Library of Congress, University of Alabama Library, University of North Carolina Library, have gone out of their way to be accommodating. The Alabama State Department of Archives and History generously made available plates for all the cartoons in this book.
Annie L. Ballard and Ruth Kibbey have graciously typed and retyped the manuscript, and Claude D. Stabler and his staff have assisted me with the maps. I shall also never forget the three children who helped me pick up the manuscript one hot summer morning after it had been left on the trunk of my car while I drove off scattering three hundred pages over a mile of Loop Road. Finally, the patience and faith of my family have been essential.
Some of the material in the preface is adapted from an earlier essay, "No Centennial for Reconstruction," Alabama Magazine ( January 1976), 27-28. I appreciate the willingness of Robert B. Ingram, former editor and president of that publication, to grant me permission to use this material again.