The Women's Movements of the United States and Western Europe: Consciousness, Political Opportunity, and Public Policy

By Mary Fainsod Katzenstein; Carol McClurg Mueller | Go to book overview

seen to challenge the primacy of politics organized around issues of class. In those European countries where feminist movements have successfully organized outside the parties ( Italy is a prime example), feminists have been able to exert enough pressure to change the political agenda in part by having their issues coopted by the parties ( Ergas 1982). Ironically, the future of feminist politics in the United States is dependent on the development of strong political organizations that can mobilize its diverse constituency, while in Europe it will require challenging strong institutions because they refuse to acknowledge interests that are not directly linked to traditional class-based issues.


NOTE
1.
The data discussed in this section are largely from a series of surveys conducted by the Roper organization for the Virginia Slims American Women's Opinion Poll in 1970, 1972, 1974, 1980, and 1985.
2.
This analysis is based on the 1982 National Election Study. The data presented in this section were made available by the Inter-Consortium for Political and Social Research. The data for the American National Election Study, 1982, were originally collected by the Center for Political Studies of the Institute for Social Research, the University of Michigan.
3.
The analysis presented in this section is based on a study by the Commission of the European Communities entitled European Women and Men in 1983. The survey was conducted in ten countries of the European Community (at the request of the Directorate for Information of the Community) as a supplement to the Eurobarometer Survey no. 19, conducted in March-April 1983. The same questionnaire was put to representative samples of the population aged 15 years and over in each country. The total sample size was 9, 790, all of whom were personally interviewed. The study was carried out by ten professional research companies, all members of the "European Omnibus Survey."

REFERENCES

Baxter, Sandra, and Marjorie Lansing. 1983. Women and Politics: The Visible Majority. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Clymer, Adam. 1983. "If Anything, Gender Gap Is Becoming Even Wider". New York Times, 11 December, p. E5.

Ergas, Yasmine. 1982. "1969-1979 -- Feminism and the Italian Party System: Women's Politics in a Decade of Termoil". Comparative Politics 14 (April):253-80.

Frankovic, Kathleen. 1982. "Sex and Politics -- New Alignments, Old Issues". PS 15:439-48.

Gelb, Joyce, and Ethel Klein. 1983. Women's Movements: Organizing for Change in the 1980's. Washington, D.C.: American Political Science Association.

Giddings, Paula. 1984. When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America. New York: Bantam Books.

Gittell, Marilyn, and Nancy Naples. 1982. "Activist Women: Conflicting Ideologies". Social Policy 12 (Summer):25-27.

-42-

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