Church and State in the Modern Age: A Documentary History

By J. F. MacLear | Go to book overview
other place of religious worship, in presence of many people, treat of matters of state in a manner calculated to bring about a breach of the peace, shall be punished by imprisonment up to two years.Source: Macmillan's Magazine, Vol. XXXI ( 1874- 1875), p. 267. German text in Johannes B. Kissling , Geschichte des Kulturkampfes im Deutschen Reiche ( Freiburg, Germany, 1913), II, 460.
SUGGESTIONS FOR BACKGROUND AND REFERENCE

M. Anderson, Windthorst: a Political Biography ( Oxford, 1981), pp. 130-200.

R. Aubert et al., The Church in the Industrial Age ( New York, 1981), pp. 26-45.

Cambridge Modern History ( New York, 1903- 1912), XII, 134-151.

G. Craig, Germany 1866-1945 ( New York, 1978), pp. 69-78.

E. Foerster, Adalbert Falk, Sein Leben und Wirken als Preussischer Kultusminister ( Gotha, Germany, 1927).

J. Rovan, Le catholicisme politique en Allemagne ( Paris, 1956), pp. 79-136.

E. Schmidt-Volkmar, Der Kulturkampf in Deutschland 1871-1890 (Göttingen Germany, 1962).

L. P. Wallace, The Papacy and European Diplomacy 1869-1878 ( Chapel Hill, N.C., 1948), pp. 187-301.


106
Anti-Jesuit Law July 4, 1872

A more serious stage of the Kulturkampf was introduced in 1872 with a law governing state inspection of religious schools, the rupture of diplomatic relations with the Vatican, and this measure against the Jesuits. Bismarck was led to this contest by concern for the newly won unity of the Reich and by deep distrust of Catholic domestic and international politics. He doubted Catholic loyalty to the predominantly Protestant empire and remained disturbed by Catholic Bavaria's leadership of particularist forces. The Catholic Center party, second largest in the Reichstag, with its confessional basis and resistance to strong imperial government, aroused his hostility. He suspected that papal diplomacy and Catholic agitation over the Roman Question in the early 1870s were directed toward the reversal of Italian and German unification. Exploiting liberal reaction against the Vatican Council, Bismarck won passage for this measure against the Jesuits, reputedly pro-Polish and most ultramontane of orders. The law, passed by the Reichstag, applied to the entire Empire, but Bismarck's subsequent legislation was restricted to Prussia (though similar conflict occurred in other German states).

1. The Order of the Society of Jesus and orders and congregations related to it are excluded from the territory of the German Empire.

-265-

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