Church and State in the Modern Age: A Documentary History

By J. F. MacLear | Go to book overview

the clerk in holy orders alleged to have offended . . . ; and the visitor or the judge . . . shall have the same power as to inhibition, and the preferment held in such cathedral or collegiate church . . . shall be subject to the same conditions as to avoidance, notice, and lapse . . . as are contained in this Act concerning an incumbent to whom a monition has been issued. . . .

Source: 37 & 38 Vict., c. 85; The Public General Statutes Passed in the Thirty-Seventh & Thirty-Eighth Years of the Reign of Her Majesiy Queen Victoria, 1874 ( London, 1874), pp. 419-426.


SUGGESTIONS FOR BACKGROUND AND REFERENCE

J. Bentley, Ritualism and Politics in Victorian Britain ( Oxford, 1978).

S. C. Carpenter, Church and People, 1789-1889 ( London, 1933), pp. 212-250.

P. J. Marsh, The Victorian Church in Decline: Archbishop Tait and the Church of England, 1868-1882 ( London, 1969), pp. 111-241.


110
French School Laws (Extracts) 1880-1886

The political alignment of Catholics and royalists versus anticlericals and republicans led militant defenders of the Third Republic to advocate the destruction of clerical influence in education. Indicting Catholic religious instruction and teaching by Catholic orders, they pressed for a national educational system organized according to the Masonic formula, "l'obligation, la gratuitg, la laicite." In the 1880s under the leadership of such politicians as Charles de Freycinet, Jules Ferry, and Paul Bert, much of this program was accomplished. Catholic institutions of higher education were deprived of university status, state faculties of Catholic theology were suppressed, and episcopal influence in the administration of public education was removed. By executive order the Jesuits were expelled, and unauthorized religious orders, involving over five thousand religious, were suppressed. The establishment of a state lycie system for girls was intended to diminish the religious influence on women. Vigorous reforms were pressed in primary education, with provision for departmental normal schools, abrogation of the teaching nun's letter of obedience as an equivalent of the teaching certificate, and abolition of tuition in the state schools. Bert's controversial law of March 28, 1882, made primary education compulsory and substituted morals and civics for religion. In 1886 all remaining teachers in state schools belonging to Catholic religious orders were ordered replaced. Early in the program the policy was apparently approved by voters in the 1881 elections. Catholic response to the "school without God" was extensive construction of rival Catholic schools throughout France. Passages from four important pieces of the program are reproduced below.)

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