Church and State in the Modern Age: A Documentary History

By J. F. MacLear | Go to book overview

tions established by private persons to provide for the workman, and for his widow or his orphans . . . ; and what are called "patronages," or institutions for the care of boys and girls, for young people, as well as homes for the aged.

The most important of all are workingmen's unions; for these virtually include all the rest. History attests what excellent results were brought about by the artificers' guilds of olden times. They were the means of affording not only many advantages to the workmen, but in no small degree of promoting the advancement of art . . . . Such unions should be suited to the requirements of this our age -- an age of wider education, of different habits, and of far more numerous requirements in daily life. It is gratifying to know that there are actually in existence not a few associations of this nature, consisting either of workmen alone, or of workmen and employers together; but it were greatly to be desired that they should become more numerous and more efficient.

Source: John J. Wynne (ed.), The Great Encyclical Letters of Pope Leo XIII ( New York, 1903), pp. 208-210, 218-220, 227-228, 230-232, 234-236, 238-239. Latin text in Acta Sanctae Sedis ( Rome, 1890- 1891), XXIII, 641-670.


SUGGESTIONS FOR BACKGROUND AND REFERENCE

J. McManners, Church and State in France,1870-1914 ( New York, 1972), pp. 45-63.

L. P. Wallace, Leo XIII and the Rise of Socialism ( Durham, N.C., 1966).

References for Document 111.


114
Au Milieu des Sollicitudes(Extracts) February 16, 1892

The ralliement, the acceptance by Catholics of the Third Republic, was the aim of Leo XIII's French policy. Papal diplomacy was accordingly directed toward allaying the hostility of anticlerical politicians and statesmen and cautioning the Catholic leadership, overwhelmingly monarchist, against involvement in rightist conspiracy and agitation. The encyclicals Immortale Dei, Libertas Praestantissimum, and Rerum Novarum helped prepare Catholic opinion, as did also the minority of abbés dimocrates who recognized republican preponderance and feared the permanent alienation of the population from religion. (On the republican side, chance of a rapprochement was increased by a desire to conciliate Catholic army and navy officers, recognition of Catholic usefulness in foreign and colonial affairs, appreciation of the Concordat as an instrument of religious control, and fear of socialism.) Explicit announcement of papal policy was made in the celebrated toast offered at a naval reception by Cardinal Lavigerie of Algiers, November 12, 1890: "But when the will of a people has plainly asserted itself and when the form of a government contains nothing contrary . . . to principles which alone can animate Christian and civilized nations; when, in order to rescue

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