Church and State in the Modern Age: A Documentary History

By J. F. MacLear | Go to book overview

consequently in the government of the Universal Church, and which by singular favor possesses the protectorate of Catholic interests in the East. Accordingly, if some head of a Catholic nation would commit a grave offense against the Sovereign Pontiff by coming to pay respects at Rome -- that is, at the very seat of the Papal See and even in the apostolic palace -- to him who against all justice withholds the pope's civil sovereignty and thereby restrains his necessary liberty and independence, this offense has been all the greater when committed by M. Loubet; and if, despite this, the papal nuncio has remained at Paris, it is due only to very grave reasons of a nature in every way special. The declaration of M. Delcassá1 to the French Parliament that this visit implied no hostile intent toward the Holy See can alter neither its character nor significance; for the offence is intrinsically in the act, so much the more in that the Holy See had not failed to warn this same [French] government.

And public opinion, in France as much as Italy, has not failed to see the offensive character of this visit, deliberately sought by the Italian government with the object of procuring by this means the weakening of the rights of the Holy See . . . .

Source: Felix Stoerk (ed.), Nouveau recued gánáral de traitás et autres actes relatifs aux rapports de droit international, 2d Ser. ( Leipzig, 1905), XXXII, 243-244.


SUGGESTIONS FOR BACKGROUND AND REFERENCE

J. Brugerette, Le prdtre frangais et la société contemporaine ( Paris, 1933- 1938), II, 523- 554.

A. Dansette, Religious History of Modern France (Freiburg, 1961), 11, 207-264.

A. Debidour, L'Église catholique et l'état sous la Troisième République (1870-1906) ( Paris, 1906- 1909), II, 339-484.

K. S. Latourette, Christianity in a Revolutionary Age ( New York, 1958- 1962), I, 408-415.

E. Lecanuet, Les signes avant-coureurs de la séparation: les dernières années de Léon XIII et l'avánement de Pie X, 1894-1910 ( Paris, 1930), pp. 473-588.

J. McManners, Church and State in France, 1870-1914 ( New York, 1972), pp. 140-165.

C. S. Phillips, The Church in France,1848-1907 ( London, 1938), pp. 275-288.


120
Separation Law (Extracts) December 9, 1905

In June 1903 a parliamentary committee was appointed to consider several private members' bills for separation of church and state. This committee, led chiefly by the socialist Aristide Briand ( 1862-1932), decided narrowly for separation, and after the fall in January 1905 of Premier Combes, who distrusted the policy, the bill was introduced for

____________________
1
Theophile Delcassá ( 1852-1923) was a Radical statesman and French foreign minister from 1898 to 1905.

-304-

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