# The G Factor: The Science of Mental Ability

By Arthur R. Jensen | Go to book overview

Appendix C
Multivariate Analyses of a Nexus
The following multivariate analyses of a small nexus of five interrelated variables are intended only as a didactic example of different ways of looking at a nexus. They merely illustrate what the results of these analyses look like when applied to a real (but small) nexus. The example is not intended to make any particular argument. Detailed computational algorithms for the various types of analysis can be found in textbooks on multivariate statistical methods. The correlation matrix and computational procedure for the path analysis were taken from Li ( 1975, pp. 324-328).The five variables in the nexus, listed in temporal order, are: father's education (FED), father's occupation (FOC), his child's IQ in childhood (CIQ), the child's education as total years of schooling (CED), and the child's adult IQ (CAIQ).
 A. The correlations among these five variables, based on a large sample of white males, aged twenty-five to sixty-four, are shown in Table C.1. B. A principal components PC analysis yields two meaningful components, labeled I and II (see Table C.2). The remaining three PCs have been dropped based on the criterion that their eigenvalues (or latent roots) are less than one. C. Also shown are the multiple correlations (Rs) of each variable with every other variable in the matrix. They indicate the degree to which any given variable in the nexus can be predicted by all of the other variables in the nexus. The proportion of variance that any given variable has in common with all of the other variables is indicated by R2. The fact that all of the loadings on PC I (i.e., the general factor in this matrix) are all fairly large indicates that this is a quite close-knit nexus; the main division among the variables is clear from the opposite signs for the father and child variables in PC II. The multiple R and the R2 for Father's Education are the smallest in the whole set, showing that it is the least well predicted by all of the other variables. The Child's Education

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The G Factor: The Science of Mental Ability

• Title Page iii
• Contents vii
• Preface ix
• Acknowledgments xiii
• Chapter 2 - The Discovery of G 18
• Notes 39
• Chapter 3 - The Trouble with "Intelligence" 45
• Notes 68
• Chapter 4 - Models and Characteristics of G 95
• Chapter 5 - Challenges to G 105
• Notes 133
• Chapter 6 - Biological Correlates of G 137
• Notes 165
• Chapter 7 - The Heritability of G 169
• Notes 197
• Chapter 8 - Information Processing and G 203
• Notes 261
• Chapter 9 - The Practical Validity of G 270
• Notes 301
• Chapter 10 - Construct, Vehicles, and Measurements 306
• Notes 344
• Chapter 11 - Population Differences in G 350
• Notes 402
• Chapter 12 - Population Differences in G: Causal Hypotheses 418
• Notes 516
• Chapter 13 - Sex Differences in G 531
• Notes 542
• Chapter 14 - The G Nexus 544
• Notes 579
• Appendix A - Spearman's "Law of Diminishing Returns" 585
• Appendix B - Method of Correlated Vectors 589
• Appendix C - Multivariate Analyses of a Nexus 593
• References 597
• Name Index 635
• Subject Index 643
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