Hierarchy and Trust in Modern Mexico and Brazil

By Luis Roniger | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
Though early approaches have emphasized the harmonious character of social exchange in Japan, more recent studies have been oriented by the search for Japanese patterns of conflict (e.g., Krauss, et al., 1984; Najita and Koschman, 1982). This approach was implicit in the early recognition of Japanese "departmentalism," but is now more fully acknowledged and examined in its incidence in different realms. Comparatively, however, the search for harmony is relatively stronger in Japanese interpersonal relations than in Latin American ones.
2.
Within Latin America, Brazil retained a more agricultural character than the Spanish-speaking societies. Nevertheless, government statistics may be misleading: Brazilian censuses classified as urban populations those living in settlements of at least 20,000 inhabitants, while Mexico adopted criteria that drew the line at 2,500 inhabitants.
3.
For details and bibliographical references, see Kahane, 1984; Eisenstadt and Roniger, 1984:145-50, 159-63, 174-78; Roniger, 1981.
4.
The dissimilar paths of transformation might be ascribed to contextual factors such as the sequential adoption of urbanization and then industrialization in Latin America (e.g., in Mexico in the 1930-70 period), as opposed to the Japanese sequence of industrialization and then urbanization. That is, it may be argued that Mexican and Brazilian rural clients severed their ties of dependence when they moved into urban centers, where patrons were presumably no longer available in the occupational realm. While I found this to be somewhat true, there have also been instances in Latin American countries in which relations of dependence involving rural workers were reformulated within industrial plants ( Leite Lopes, 1976). Moreover, this argument insufficiently explains the patterns of change under discussion. First, the rural process of massive migration to urban areas was due primarily to the crises of rural settings rather than to the attraction that urban centers held for the rural masses (see e.g., Sotelo 1975). Second, the Latin American bosses under consideration were primarily motivated to invest in lands and related agrarian assets rather than in other entrepreneurial avenues, which were left, among others, to foreigners and immigrants (see Ridings, 1985).
5.
Other clientelistic relationships include iemoto-disciples links, dozoku inner arrangements, and yuryosusha-led relations, in the framework of both familial and extra-familial commitments.
6.
E.g., in Mexico, the widespread use of caciquismo instead of cacicazgos, which would signify the concrete instances of caciquismo.
7.
Oyakata and kokata are interchangeable with oyabun and kobun, respectively, although they hold more traditional overtones.
8.
It may even be argued that, from the perspective of the social actors involved, it was in their own interest to contribute to the stability of a bond which provided long-term succor. What is important here are the behaviorial consequences of this trend as discussed by Francis K. Hsu. "The dependent party is less likely to wait helplessly for orders and succor from his superior. Instead, while he derives benefit from his benefactor, he does a great deal to benefit the superior in return" ( Hsu, 1975:125).

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Hierarchy and Trust in Modern Mexico and Brazil
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Tables and Figures ix
  • Preface xi
  • Chapter 1 Clientelism and Trust 1
  • Notes 19
  • Chapter 2 Hierarchy and Clientelism in Latin America 21
  • Notes 33
  • Chapter 3 the Institutional Context of Mexico and Brazil 35
  • Notes 54
  • Chapter 4 Clientelism in Mexico 57
  • Notes 93
  • Chapter 5 Clientelism in Brazil 97
  • Notes 141
  • Chapter 6 Cross-National Comparison of Mexican and Brazilian Clientelism 145
  • Notes 156
  • Chapter 7 Multi-Dimensional Comparison of Network Variability 159
  • Notes 177
  • Chapter 8 Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Mexican and Brazilian Clientelism 179
  • Conclusion 197
  • Notes 199
  • Bibliography 203
  • Index 233
  • About the Author 237
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