Instruction: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives

By Ronna F. Dillon; James W. Pellegrino | Go to book overview

CONCLUSIONS

The results indicate a need for a measure of instructional cost effectiveness -- tradeoffs in time to instruct versus time to perform. This measure should make explicit the advantages, disadvantages, and tradeoffs in training time and performance for the various types of explanations. The conditions under which a particular technique can be used to the best advantage and the functional equivalence of various techniques that might be used for achieving a particular goal should be outlined. A body of knowledge that takes these various concerns into account in a more direct manner is needed. Finally, the implication of this work for instructional developers is to recognize the interactions between the learner's knowledge structures, the structure of the information content in the instructional material, and the structure of the task when developing and designing instruction.


REFERENCES

Anderson J. R. ( 1981, August). Acquisition of cognitive skill. Carnegie-Mellon University, Department of Psychology, Contract No. 14-81-C-0335, TR 81-1.

Anderson R. C. ( 1977). The notion of schemata and the educational enterprise: General discussion of the conference. In R. C. Anderson, R. J. Spiro, & W. E. Montague (Eds.), Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 415-31.

Arnheim R. ( 1969). Visual thinking. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Attneave F. ( 1974). "How do you know?" American Psychologist 29, 493-99.

Baggett P. ( 1983a). Learning a procedure from multimedia instructions: The effects of film and practice. Institute of Copitive Science, University of Colorado, Technical Report No. 125-ONR.

_____. ( 1983b). Four principles for designing instruction. Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Colorado, Technical report No. 121-ONR.

Baggett P., & Ehrenfeucht A. ( 1985). Conceptualizing in assembly. Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Colorado.

Bieger G. R. ( 1982, March). The necessary and sufficient information for procedural assembly tasks. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association convention, New York.

Bieger G. R., & Glock M. D. ( 1982). Comprehension of spatial and contextual information in pictures and texts. (Technical Report No. 6). Ithaca, NY: Reading Research Group, Cornell University.

Bower G. ( 1970). "Organizational factors in memory". Cognitive Psychology 1, 18-46.

Branson R. K., Rayner G. T., Cox J. L., Furman J. P., King F. J., & Hannum W. H. ( 1975, August). Interservice Procedures for Instructional Systems Development: Executive Summary, Phase I, Phase II, Phase III, Phase IV, Phase V. Florida State University, Naval Training Device Center Army Combat Arms Training Board.

Bruner J. S. ( 1964). Some theorems on instruction illustrated with reference to mathematics. In E. R. Hilgard (Ed.), Theories of Learning and Instruction: The Sixty-third Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education (Part 1). Chicago: NSSE.

Campbell V. N., O'Conner M. F., & Peterson C. R. ( 1976, September). Accrued utility of Navy enlisted personnel (Contract No. N00014-76-C-0713). McLean, VA: Decisions and Designs, Inc.

Chi M. T. H., Feltovich P. J., & Glaser R. ( 1981). Categorization and representation of physics problems by experts and novices. University of Pittsburgh, Learning Research and Development Center, Technical Report No. 4.

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