Instruction: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives

By Ronna F. Dillon; James W. Pellegrino | Go to book overview
at NPRDC. The study was undertaken, in part, to confirm theoretical predictions from her theory of constructive failure.
4.
The situational description was the method used because it allows for maximum control of failure and attribution, which would be difficult otherwise. Also, it is ethical whereas inducing failure seems less so.
5.
In using these statistics, the recommendation of Cronback and Snow ( 1977) was followed. They recommend that individual difference measures be entered followed by experimental treatment variables. Also, a p & .10 was used.
6.
In addition to the study just reported, a second study of recruits has been conducted, using the same experimental procedures, with recruits who have just entered the Navy (the first two days). The results will be compared with the data from recruits just leaving recruit training to check motivation levels before and after recruit training.
7.
A goal setting and reward locus study is currently being conducted with Ruth Kanfer from the Psychology Department, University of Minnesota. This study is being done at the BE&E school in San Diego with 400 BE&E students.

REFERENCES

Anderson J. R. ( 1983). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Atkinson J. W., & Birch D. ( 1970). The dynamics of action. New York: Wiley.

Bruner J. S. ( 1966). Toward a theory of instruction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Clifford M. ( 1984). "Thoughts on a theory of constructive failure". Educational Psychologist 19, 108-20.

_____. ( 1996). "The effects of ability, strategy, and effort attributions for educational, business, and athletic failure". British Journal of Educational Psychology 56, 75-83.

Clifford M. M., Kim A., & McDonald B. A. ( 1988). "Responses to failure as influenced by task attribution, outcome attribution, and failure tolerance". The Journal of Experimental Education 57 ( 1), 19-37.

Condry J., & Chambers J. ( 1978). "Intrinsic motivation and the process of learning". In M. Lepper & D. Greene (Eds.), The hidden cost of reward. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Cronbach L. J., & Snow R. E. ( 1977). Aptitudes and instructional methods. New York: Irvington.

Czickszentsmihalyi M. ( 1978). "Intrinsic rewards and emergent motivation". In M. Lepper & D. Greene (Eds.), The hidden cost of reward. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.

deCharms R. ( 1985). Personal causation: The internal affective determinants of behavior. New York. Academic Press.

Doci E. ( 1972). "Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic reinforcement, and inequality". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 22, 113-20.

_____. ( 1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum.

Deci E., Nezlik J., & Sheinman L. ( 1981). "Characteristics of the rewarder and intrinsic motivation of the rewardee". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 40, 1-10.

Deci E., Spiegel N., Ryan R., Koestner R., & Kauffman M. ( 1982). "Effects of performance standard on teaching styles: Behavior of controlling teacher". Journal of Educational Psychology 74, 852-59.

Dweck C., & Elliot E. ( 1983). "Achievement motivation". In E. Hetherington (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development. New York: Wiley.

Dweck C. S. ( 1986). "Motivational processes affecting learning". American Psychologist 41, 1040-48.

Gardner H. ( 1985). The mind's new science: A history of the cognitive revolution. New York: Basic Books.

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