Instruction: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives

By Ronna F. Dillon; James W. Pellegrino | Go to book overview

Index
abilities: alternative abilities model, difficulties with, 39-40; ATIs using measures of general, 18-19; cognitive styles and mental, 19-20, 21, 24-26; individual differences in, computer-managed instructional environment and, 19-26; as predictor of performance in computer-managed instructional environment, 37-38, 39; psychometric predictive tests using measures of, 40-41. See also crystallized intelligence
ability attributions, 125
Academic Remedial Training (ART) Center, experiment on ESL recruits at, 72-79
achievement: cognitive components of, in CMI setting, 30-36; computer-based mastery learning approach and, 27-30; intrinsic motivation and, 122-23; measures of earlier academic, 40
action information in linear explanations, 51
active memory. See short-term memory
adaptation, pretask instructional, 17
adaptive expertise, 108-13
AFHRL/OT (Air Force Human Resources Laboratory/Operations Training), 160
aircrew tasks, complex, 150-62; cognitive approaches to instruction and, 152-53; cognitive task analysis and, 154-56, 159; complexities and cognitive workload, 150- 51; decision making, 154; problem solving, 153-54; skill automaticity and, 156- 60; training analysis and design for, 152
alternative abilities model, difficulties with, 39-40
analogies, 54-55, 58
apprentice, scenario for typical technical, 115- 16
aptitude(s): cognitive styles and, 21, 24-26; defined, 16; individual differences in, computer-managed instructional environment and, 19-26; as predictor of performance in computer-managed instructional environment, 37-38, 39; psychometric predictive tests using measures of, 40-41. See also crystallized intelligence
aptitude-learning relationships, 30-31
aptitude-treatment-interaction (ATI), 9, 17-19, 31, 36, 130
Armed Services, ESL recruits in, 71-79. See also specific services
assessment, type of, 3
attention across words in text. ESL recruits' distribution of, 72-76
attribution: outcome, 127-30; task, 127-30, 134
attribution theory, 124-25
auding, 87
automaticity, skill, 156-60; time/trials required for, 159
automatic processing, 157
Autonomous Learning Model of Studying, 6
Basic Electronics and Electricity (BE&E) School, motivation study in, 126, 130- 34
basic knowledge, 111
basic skills instruction, integrated, 100, 104
bilinguals, experimental investigation of text comprehension processes in, 71-81; conclusions of, 79; distribution of attention across words in text, 72-76; integration of information across sentences in text, 76-79

-183-

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