African-American, and Hispanic descent. The diverse conceptual foundations of different affirmative action programs are a potent source of value conflict within arts policy, a state of affairs requiring considerable analysis.
A final conceptual issue that emerged from interpretation of the policy mechanisms of state arts agencies, especially the open-access-to-funding policy mechanism, is that of artistic value. In terms of a value conflict, claims and counterclaims were found surrounding the notion that artistic value is relative to specific cultural traditions. Resolution of this conflict through conceptual analysis is a matter of addressing a major philosophical question: Is value in art best thought of as one thing or as many? Yet once this question is raised, other questions then must be considered: Does artistic value reside in art objects or in responding individuals? What claims can be made for the aesthetic, cognitive, moral, and religious value of art? In what ways does the value of art reside in its social and cultural functions?
Analysis of the value conflicts surrounding concepts of cultural pluralism, the relations of art to culture, justice and affirmative action, and artistic value, and the implications of these concepts for choice among arts policy mechanism options, forms the subject for Chapter 4.