Terrains of Resistance: Nonviolent Social Movements and the Contestation of Place in India

By Paul Routledge; John Agnew | Go to book overview

significance to the Hindu community, which found sympathy with the Indian public (e.g., the hill districts are the home of the Badrinath and Kedarnath pilgrimage sites and Gangotri, the source of the Ganges); and (3) Chipko's association with Gandhism (via its nonviolent tactics and its Gandhian leaders), which has made it politically difficult for the state to suppress the movement (since the state claims to be the successor of the freedom struggle, upholds Gandhi as the "Father of the Nation" and has tried symbolically to appropriate the prestige associated with Gandhi's name) ( Guha 1989b).

In conclusion, despite autonomy from political parties (and due to the organizational prowess of the Sarvodaya movement), the Chipko movement has had a certain amount of success in affecting government policy regarding forestry practices, albeit social change that is reformist and incremental in character. Although less tangible, the movement's importance lies in the fact that it has challenged (sometimes successfully) the development process of the modernizing Indian state, and this challenge (via increased awareness) has begun to spread to other parts of India (witness the Harsud demonstration in 1989) and influence and inspire other ecological movements across India.

As I show in Chapter 5, both the Chipko and the Baliapal movements can be located in the context of other ongoing, localized nonviolent struggles in India -- sites of struggle that pose place-specific challenges within civil society to the dominating discourse of the state.


NOTE
1.
Literally, seclusion, whereby a woman's movements within the home and outside in the community are delimited by religious custom.

-118-

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Terrains of Resistance: Nonviolent Social Movements and the Contestation of Place in India
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Maps and Tables ix
  • Foreword xi
  • Preface xv
  • Acknowledgments xix
  • Chapter 1 Development and Resistance in India 1
  • Notes 19
  • Chapter 2 Putting Social Movements in Their Place: Social Movement Theory and the Spatial Mediation of Nonviolent Resistance Terrains 21
  • Notes 38
  • Chapter 3 the Baliapal Movement 39
  • Notes 73
  • Chapter 4 the Chipko Movement 75
  • Note 118
  • Chapter 5 India's Terrains of Resistance 119
  • Notes 134
  • Chapter 6 Social Movements, Place and Nonviolent Sanctions 135
  • Notes 149
  • Bibliography 151
  • Index 167
  • About the Author 171
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