interrelationship between domestic and international politics, the prosecution of nonviolent action at one level can also have dramatic consequences at another level, as the experiences of Eastern Europe attest. However, as Kruegler ( 1991) notes, much research is still required into the nature and dynamics of nonviolent conflict, including detailed analyses of nonviolent action by civil society (such as that within Eastern Europe in 1989); the effects of mixing nonviolent with violent means of struggle; whether predominantly nonviolent conflict is more or less conducive to efficient and durable settlements; whether societies are condemned to perpetual improvisation with nonviolent sanctions or whether such behaviors can be learned, transmitted and institutionalized as policy; and the systemic effects of intrastate nonviolent conflicts, especially as they relate to the character and capabilities of important international actors.
Although I have concluded this book with a brief section on the broader implications of nonviolent sanctions, the essence and message of this work speak to the local, the particular and the human dimensions of conflict. Through my focus on the spatial mediation of social movement agency, I hope to have shown how the specifics of location, locale and sense of place inform, motivate and inspire both those involved in the everyday practice of struggle and those concerned with the theorizing and understanding of social movement conflicts. The geographical concept of place provides crucial insights into the context, character, dynamics and outcomes of social movement practice and how these are expressed as terrains of resistance. The concept of place can also provide intimate insights into the spirit of people's resistance. For, as the experiences of the Baliapal and Chipko movements attest, while the success or failure of a social movement is of crucial concern when people are confronted with struggles for cultural, political and economic survival, the very fact that they resist speaks directly to the critical elements of human transformation: participation, communication and self-realization.