Profile of Individualism Values
A person's orientation toward individualism versus collectivism reflects the values that person has developed over time in response to cultural, workplace, and family circumstances. These circumstances, in turn, are conditioned by organizational, national, and international political economy issues that come to bear on a person's existence in the home, at work, and in society. This research analyzes three groups of values: workplace, cultural, and family. The workplace values are those of R. Buchholz ( 1976), while the cultural values are those of G. Hofstede ( 1980). The family values included in this research reflect basic concepts developed by members of our research consortium as traditionally found in the sociological literature.
Our research further divides work of these three value groups into two broad sets-those values that reflect a tendency toward individualism versus those values that reflect a tendency toward collectivism. Chapter 4 analyzes the latter while this chapter deals with the individualism values. The specific values that affect individualism consist of the following: relative emphasis on work versus leisure; cultural values relating to personal individualism and masculinity versus uncertainty avoidance and power distance; and values dealing with individualism within the family and the economic orientation of the family.
Buchholz's research provides a methodology that focuses on the comparison of work beliefs across cultures and organizations. Two of these work beliefs, the work ethic and the leisure ethic, are analyzed in the discussion that follows, while the three work beliefs relating to collectivism (organizational, humanistic, and Marxist belief systems) are