tions, 3.71 and 3.30, respectively, are very much higher than for the other four value propositions relating to the economic orientation of the family. The respondents from Germany, the United States, and Yugoslavia are the only ones that have higher mean responses than the average mean for both propositions 1 and 5.
Table 3.8 shows the overall economic orientation of the family by respondents in each of the eight countries. This overall orientation reflects the combined responses to the six value propositions. The chi square analysis indicates that there are some significant differences (.00 level) in the overall importance of the economic orientation of the family (.40 coefficient of contingency). However, all of the mean responses of the eight countries tend to be generally low, with a somewhat narrow range of means ( Japan 2.67 to Chile 2.96), and with an average mean for the eight countries of 2.84.
However, the ANOVA Scheffe Test results on Table 3.8 shows some different levels of the family economic orientation between respondents from pairs of countries. For example, the respondents from the former Soviet Union and Japan place a lower emphasis on the economic orientation of the family than respondents from the other six countries. The respondents from the United States and Chile place greater importance on the economic orientation of the family than those from Japan, the People's Republic of China, the former Soviet Union, and Venezuela in terms of these paired comparison tests.
This chapter compares the relative overall tendency toward individualism of respondents in the eight countries surveyed. This comparison focuses on five specific values that reflect a higher emphasis on the tendency toward individualism as a general value. These include one workplace value relating to the work ethic, two cultural values relating to personal individualism and masculinity, and the two family values pertaining to individualism within the family and family economic orientation. Respondents who place more emphasis on these five values have a higher mean response to a set of value propositions that measures the extent of each value emphasized. For example, the attributes of a greater tendency toward individualism are an emphasis on work; a preference for personal independence; a masculine outlook that emphasizes work, achievement, and individualism; and an emphasis on economic