people's Republic of China (3 of 5 each); and Chile (2 of 5). This corresponds to 12 of 15 (80 percent) for the combined respondents from the three collectivist countries, compared to 7 of 10 (70 percent) and 6 of 15 (40 percent) for the combined respondents from the two Latin American and three market-oriented countries, respectively. The respondents from Yugoslavia, Venezuela, and the former Soviet Union tend to place a greater overall emphasis on social cohesion and status as a family value when compared to the respondents from the other countries surveyed.
Table 4.5 shows the overall emphasis on social cohesion and status as a family value by respondents from each of the eight countries surveyed. This emphasis reflects the combined responses to the five value propositions referred to previously. The chi square analysis indicates that there are some significant differences (.00 level) in the overall emphasis on family cohesion and status according to the country of the respondents (.43 coefficient of contingency). As in the case of the other four collectivism values discussed earlier in this chapter, all of the overall mean responses of respondents from each country are quite high, ranging from 3.14 ( Japan) to 3.77 ( Venezuela), with an average mean of 3.52 for the eight countries.
The ANOVA Scheffe test results indicate where differences in mean responses are significant. For example, respondents from Venezuela and Yugoslavia place a higher emphasis on social cohesion and status as a family value than do the respondents from the other six countries surveyed, with the United States showing the next highest emphasis when compared to respondents from Germany, Japan, the People's Republic of China, and Chile.
This chapter compares the relative overall emphasis placed on collectivism by the respondents from the eight countries surveyed. This comparison focuses on five specific values which reflect a general tendency toward collectivism as a general value. These include three workplace values relating to organizational, humanistic, and Marxist work belief systems; one cultural value relating to paternalism; and one value relating to social cohesion and status in the family. Respondents who emphasize these five values have a higher mean response to a set of value propositions which measures the extent to which each value is