Liberalism and Social Reform: Industrial Growth and Progressiste Politics in France, 1880-1914

By David M. Gordon | Go to book overview

votes), up from 85 percent in 1910, and increased his share of the vote at Briey from 36 to 48 percent (277 votes) and at Auboué from 22 to 46 percent (157 votes). He also did better at Homécourt, with 54 percent of the vote (up from 51 percent). Wendel thus won 55 percent of the total vote (4,430 in all). Cavallier telegraphed his congratulations to a "grand confrère métallurgiste." 107 After 1914, Wendel continued to win reelection, usually by impressive majorities. In 1933 he entered the Senate. 108

François de Wendel was frequently called a "reactionary" by his political opponents, both before and after 1914. He was, in fact, one of the most forward-looking of France's manufacturers, and he contributed to the development of its prewar industrial economy and later helped oversee its unprecedented industrial prosperity in the 1920s. His election, like that of the other figures of this study, proved that an industrial employer, far from being the inevitable political adversary of his workers, could, through an intelligent sharing of profits in the form of high wages and good benefits, create a community of interest that spanned the classes. His regime at Joeuf in some ways presaged the development of the welfare state, which would reduce class antagonisms to levels undreamed of by pre-World War I Socialist and syndicalist leaders. Wendel did manipulate the electorate, but not with the heavy-handed bullying of which he is sometimes accused. He bought the support of many industrial workers by providing a relatively high standard of living, and he won the votes of others through a nationalist program that avoided the racism of his contemporaries on the Right. His opposition to anticlericalism won him popularity among all classes. Finally, hiring policies at Joeuf and the cooperation of Catholic unions brought him enough votes to win.

Wendel's election, far from weakening the Republic (as his opponents claimed), actually strengthened it. His career proved that the growth of an industrial workforce did not inevitably contribute to the strength of socialism. His victory helped reassure manufacturers of their continuing political influence within their localities and their ability to act as the legitimate spokesmen for the interests of the whole of the electorate. Democracy was not something to be feared. Universal manhood suffrage and the secret ballot did not have to undermine the elites, as Jaurès had predicted. It could also validate and reinforce their position. François de Wendel proved that modern industrial capitalism, which was the best means of ensuring national prosperity, could continue on the eve of World War I to find friends even within an industrial electorate.


NOTES
1.
François de Wendel was born in Paris in 1874. He inherited the direction of De Wendel et Cie and a directorship of Les Petits-fils de François de Wendel in 1906, and he was elected president of the Comité des forges in 1918. Wendel was elected to the

-164-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Liberalism and Social Reform: Industrial Growth and Progressiste Politics in France, 1880-1914
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgements vii
  • Introduction 1
  • Notes 27
  • 1 - Industrial Growth and Socialist Success at Roubaix 31
  • Notes 50
  • 2 - Eugène Motte and the Bourgeois Political Resurgence 55
  • Notes 78
  • 3 - Georges Claudinon and the Industrial Revival at Le Chambon-Feugerolles 83
  • Notes 109
  • 4 - Industrial Crisis and Progressiste Success at Rive-De-Gier 115
  • Notes 135
  • 5 - François De Wendel and Progressiste Politics in Industrial Lorraine 141
  • Notes 164
  • Conclusion 171
  • Notes 191
  • Appendix 195
  • Bibliography 209
  • Index 217
  • About the Author 227
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 232

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.