Developing Countries and Regional Economic Cooperation

By M. Leann Brown | Go to book overview

market, payments union, and regional investment bank. In January 1977, a tariff reduction agreement was signed with Singapore, and in February, association-wide preferential trading arrangements were signed. By the time of the August announcement to drop the claim, a feasibility study on producing superphosphates had been completed, the Philippines' initial allocation in ASEAN's industrial projects. It seemed that developmental assistance from Australia, New Zealand, and Japan would be forthcoming via the association. To Marcos, ASEAN offered the potential for economic development independent of US control.

From the time of the watershed 1976 Bali Summit and the 1977 Kuala Lumpur Summit, where Marcos formally renounced Philippine intentions to pursue the Sabah claim, ASEAN's progress, achieved in small and gradual steps, has continued. Taylor ( 1984: 78) contends that most progress has been achieved "within the member-states collective zone of indifference." Although the areas of association accomplishment may be better characterized as increasing in scope rather than depth, no one questions ASEAN's usefulness as a mechanism for resolving differences among its members, or as a coalition for dealing with the outside world on both security and economic issues. Brunei joined the original five members of the association shortly after it achieved full independence in late 1983.

The benefits of ASEAN are so widely acknowledged that it is unlikely that regime change within a member state will affect the members' commitment to ASEAN. Continued Filipino participation in ASEAN was not a subject of debate when Corazon Aquino assumed office in the February 1986 People's Revolution. ASEAN is without question a political success; it remains to be seen if this political achievement can provide impetus for further economic cooperation to facilitate development in the resource-rich economies. This latter objective is, of course, the primary stated purpose of ASEAN.


NOTES
1.
Between 25,000 and 50,000 people in the territory were Filipino citizens or of Philippine origin. Approximately 100,000 Chinese constituted the commercial class ( New York Times, September 28, 1968: 3:2).
2.
Padjak describes the payment arrangements between de Overbeck and the Sultan (and his heirs). Filipino experts claim that the word in the original document, written in the Sultan's Malay-Arabic language, implied a routine rental agreement. They insist that the validity of this claim is not weakened by the fact that the long-accepted English translation of the document uses the word cede to describe the transaction. The original Malay-Arabic document has long since disappeared. The Philippines claims that British agents stole it from Sultan Jamalul Kiram II when he visited Singapore to renegotiate the payments. The British thereafter ignored all requests for a copy of the document, but a valid copy was

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Developing Countries and Regional Economic Cooperation
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Abbreviations xi
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - Explaining Regional Economic Cooperation: The Case for a Cognitive Framing Model 13
  • Notes 39
  • 3 - The Andean Case: The 1976 Chilean Decision to Withdraw from the Pact 43
  • Notes 68
  • 4 - The Ecowas Case: Nigeria's 1983 Decision to Expel Allen Workers 73
  • Notes 95
  • 5 - The Asean Case: The 1977 Philippine Decision Concerning Sabah 99
  • Notes 122
  • 6 - Conclusions and Policy Recommendations 125
  • Notes 142
  • Appendix 145
  • Bibliography 155
  • Index 169
  • About the Author 175
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