Press Freedom and Global Politics

By Douglas A. Van Belle | Go to book overview

this difference shapes the nature of international conflict is explored through the empirical analyses in the chapters that follow.


NOTES
1.
There are a variety of ways to say this; for a general depiction of the essential role of the news media see Alger ( 1989). For a general perspective on the key role of news media in foreign policy, see Serfaty ( 1991). For a more specific application to its essential nature in preparing a society for war, see Hunt ( 1997) and the enemy image formation studies of Ottosen ( 1995) and Luostarinen ( 1989).
2.
In about 85 percent of cases democracy or the lack thereof is the correct predictor of press freedom or the lack thereof ( Van Belle and Oneal, 1998). However, as will become apparent in the statistical analyses that 15 percent discrepancy is crucial.
3.
This actually ties into the literature on collective action through the role of leadership in collective activities. See Van Belle ( 1996).
4.
Political news is defined as broadly as possible. It includes news stories that can be at least minimally defined as addressing one of the following: the national economy, actions or conditions of the U.S. government, domestic political actions or actors, foreign policy actions by the United States, or relations between other states that are relevant to expressed U.S. interests.
5.
The OLS interrupted times series technique is from Berry and Lewis-Beck ( 1986).
6.
By relying on foreign sources I do not mean that they read the Bagdad Times. Instead they take the information derived from foreign sources at face value and possibly use it. They most likely get that information through the domestic news media. In this way the selection criteria of the domestic news media, and the context in which foreign sources are reported, including clues concerning reliability, are even more important.
7.
In extended conflicts, such as the Vietnam War, domestic critics might be able to establish their own, reliable sources of information completely outside of the news media and the government of the opposing country and challenge the leadership's dominance of the news sources.
8.
Two hundred and two stories in the Times and the Sunday Times were coded by paragraph for the source of the information. Editorials

-44-

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Press Freedom and Global Politics
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Preface ix
  • 1 - Press Freedom and Global Politics 1
  • Notes 8
  • 2 - Rational Foreign Policy Choice 9
  • Notes 24
  • 3 - The Press and Foreign Policy 25
  • Notes 44
  • 4 - Press Freedom and Militarized Disputes 47
  • Notes 73
  • 5 - Press Freedom and Lethal International Conflicts 77
  • Notes 93
  • 6 - A Monadic Effect for Press Freedom in Lethal International Conflicts 95
  • Notes 103
  • 7 - Press Freedom and Cooperation 105
  • Notes 127
  • 8 Conclusions 129
  • Appendix Measuring Global Press Freedom 137
  • Notes 148
  • Bibliography 149
  • Index 167
  • About the Author 171
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