Press Freedom and Global Politics

By Douglas A. Van Belle | Go to book overview

EXOGENOUS INFLUENCES ON PRESS FREEDOM

Obviously, all three of the mechanisms proposed above are speculative, but they are all plausible explanations for the empirical findings reported. This indirectly addresses the role that exogenous influences might play in establishing and maintaining the free and effective role of the press. Raymond Nixon ( 1960, 1965) offered three conditions as strongly correlated with the presence of a free press, all of which are endogenous to the states. However, changing these internal characteristics of states is an unlikely avenue for effectively fostering the growth of new free presses. Organizations committed to the ideal of a free press, such as the International Press Institute, often attempt to foster free presses by generating influences exogenous to states, such as diplomatic pressure from external sources. This brief analysis suggests that the policies of President Nixon may have had negative effects. This in turn implies that positive efforts to expand global press freedoms might prove to be effective, but it is necessary to identify the specific causal mechanisms at work.


NOTES
1.
Thanks to Wooter deBeen, Shannon Guillotte Becnel, and Scott McCrossen for their research assistance during the coding process.
2.
The codings for Nicaragua are identical in the dichotomous comparison of these two data sets.
3.
In the second analysis conducted in Chapter 4, it was possible to confirm this insight from the coding process. Splitting the media variable up into separate dummy variables for each category consistently produced regression results that were similar to those attained with the simpler dichotomous coding.
4.
A research note regarding the correlation between Nixon's presidency and the drop in global press freedom originally appeared in Southeastern Political Quarterly ( Van Belle, 1998), and the identical portions of this appendix have been reprinted with permission.
5.
This methodology is detailed in Berry and Lewis-Beck ( 1986). The analysis was also run with a one-year lag, producing almost identical results. In the absence of a theoretical model outlining a causal linkage and justifying a lagged effect, the analysis without one is reported here.
6.
For a short summary, see Tebbel and Watts ( 1985: 500-515). Porter ( 1976) and Keogh ( 1972) provide more thorough analyses of just how extensive and determined the Nixon war on the news media was.

-148-

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Press Freedom and Global Politics
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Preface ix
  • 1 - Press Freedom and Global Politics 1
  • Notes 8
  • 2 - Rational Foreign Policy Choice 9
  • Notes 24
  • 3 - The Press and Foreign Policy 25
  • Notes 44
  • 4 - Press Freedom and Militarized Disputes 47
  • Notes 73
  • 5 - Press Freedom and Lethal International Conflicts 77
  • Notes 93
  • 6 - A Monadic Effect for Press Freedom in Lethal International Conflicts 95
  • Notes 103
  • 7 - Press Freedom and Cooperation 105
  • Notes 127
  • 8 Conclusions 129
  • Appendix Measuring Global Press Freedom 137
  • Notes 148
  • Bibliography 149
  • Index 167
  • About the Author 171
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