EXOGENOUS INFLUENCES ON PRESS FREEDOM
Obviously, all three of the mechanisms proposed above are speculative, but they are all plausible explanations for the empirical findings
reported. This indirectly addresses the role that exogenous influences
might play in establishing and maintaining the free and effective role of
the press. Raymond Nixon ( 1960, 1965) offered three conditions as
strongly correlated with the presence of a free press, all of which are
endogenous to the states. However, changing these internal characteristics of states is an unlikely avenue for effectively fostering the growth
of new free presses. Organizations committed to the ideal of a free press,
such as the International Press Institute, often attempt to foster free
presses by generating influences exogenous to states, such as diplomatic
pressure from external sources. This brief analysis suggests that the policies of President Nixon may have had negative effects. This in turn
implies that positive efforts to expand global press freedoms might prove
to be effective, but it is necessary to identify the specific causal mechanisms at work.
Thanks to Wooter deBeen, Shannon Guillotte Becnel, and Scott
McCrossen for their research assistance during the coding process.
The codings for Nicaragua are identical in the dichotomous comparison of these two data sets.
In the second analysis conducted in Chapter 4, it was possible to
confirm this insight from the coding process. Splitting the media variable
up into separate dummy variables for each category consistently produced regression results that were similar to those attained with the simpler dichotomous coding.
A research note regarding the correlation between Nixon's presidency and the drop in global press freedom originally appeared in Southeastern Political Quarterly (
Van Belle, 1998), and the identical portions
of this appendix have been reprinted with permission.
This methodology is detailed in Berry and
Lewis-Beck ( 1986). The
analysis was also run with a one-year lag, producing almost identical
results. In the absence of a theoretical model outlining a causal linkage
and justifying a lagged effect, the analysis without one is reported here.
For a short summary, see Tebbel and
Watts ( 1985: 500-515). Porter
( 1976) and Keogh ( 1972) provide more thorough analyses of just
how extensive and determined the Nixon war on the news media was.