The environmental crisis of the twentieth century is complex and pervasive. It affects all media of air, land, water, and energy, as well as our socioeconomic- political system. Resolving it requires people from many backgrounds, especially ecologists, environmental scientists, economists, and political scientists. Thousands of these concerned citizens, as individuals or as members of organizations, have been instrumental in influencing society's environmental public policy.
The objective of this chapter is to describe the key players who brought the environmental paradigm into society's forefront. We discuss their careers and how their fundamental ideologies helped focus societal attention to a specific public concern. Space limits the ability to say something about the thousands of adherents and supporters of environmental movements. Rather, we will concentrate on those environmentalists who played a seminal role in the development of an analytical framework of the environmental problem.
Kenneth E. Boulding, originator of the "spaceship Earth" concept, was one of the few economists drawn into environmental politics. He was born in England, on January 18, 1910, but became a United States citizen in 1948. He graduated from Oxford University and became a professor at the University of Colorado. His research interests have included the integration