Protestants First: Orangeism in Nineteenth Century Scotland

By E. W. McFarland | Go to book overview

4
The early History of Orangeism in Scotland 1799-1865

THE FIRST LODGES AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS

Unlike the case of the Irish movement, sources for the early period of Scottish Orangeism are extremely limited. What follows is a general social history of these opening decades, with some tentative analysis of the Order's relatively weak political impact in Scotland.

Orangemen as bearers of a distinct tradition have always perceived themselves as participating in a continuous historical process. While in part relevant to an understanding of the survival and periodic revivals of the Institution, in general application, as already noted, this official view obscures more than it clarifies.

This indeed holds true for Scotland. The claim of Lilburn, for example, that Orangeism here is 'as old as the Glorious Revolution' is fairly modest when set beside the contemporary Orange view that the Institution's forebears were no less than the seventeenth century martyrs of the Covenant. 1

In the Scottish case the line must be drawn for accuracy's sake not only between the actual institutional genesis of the LOI, and the rather vague and eclectic 'Orange tradition', as in Ireland, but also between these and an indigenous tradition of emotional opposition to 'Popish machinations'.

Although the Orange Gazette, a daily intelligence of Glorious Revolution events 'with extraordinary news both at home and abroad', made its appearance in Edinburgh in 1689, 2 the Orange tradition, drawing on the Revolution and subsequent Williamite campaigns, was much less prominent and relevant in Scotland than in Ireland -- the actual site of ' Derry, Aughrim, Enniskillen and the Boyne', where the tradition had had huge symbolic value for the embattled settler community. 3

Far more powerful, however, was a much older, undifferentiated form of militant Protestantism which it could be argued owed as much to the course of the Scottish Reformation as it did to the events of 1688-90. 4 Representative of this indigenous ideology was the Protestant Association, an 'ill-defined amalgam of extra-religious and extra parliamentary forces' with the simple, negative aim of

-47-

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Protestants First: Orangeism in Nineteenth Century Scotland
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Key to Abbreviations vi
  • Preface vii
  • 1 - What is Orangeism? 1
  • Notes 14
  • 2 - Theoretical Approaches 17
  • Notes 28
  • 3 - Historical Overview: 'the Lodge of Diamond in Armagh' 30
  • Notes 45
  • 4: The early History of Orangeism in Scotland 1799-1865 47
  • 5 - Orangeism in Scotland 1865-1900: Quantification and Class Composition 70
  • Notes 91
  • 6 - Absolute Strength and Relative Weakness 95
  • 7 - The Scottish Churches 115
  • Notes 136
  • 8 - Leadership and Rank and File Relations 139
  • Notes 157
  • 9 - The Mainspring of Conservatism? 1865-85 160
  • Notes 186
  • 10 - Truckling to Popery (1886-1900) 190
  • Notes 209
  • Postscript Orangeism in Modern Scotland 212
  • Notes 219
  • Appendix A District Lodges' Numbers and Locations c. 1878 220
  • Appendix B Greenock Orangemen: Occupational Breakdown 1879-86 221
  • Appendix C Greenock Orangemen: Occupational Breakdown 1892 223
  • Appendix D Paisley Orangemen: Occupational Breakdown 1866-86 225
  • Appendix E Biographical Index 227
  • Appendix F Clergymen with Orange Links 1865-1900 233
  • Bibliography 235
  • Index 250
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