The Formulation and Administration of United States Foreign Policy

By H. Field Haviland; Robert E. Asher et al. | Go to book overview

APPENDIX D
THE PROGRAM PROCEDURE FOR FOREIGN ECONOMIC AID1
The following description of the programing process for foreign economic aid programs is a condensation of material furnished by executive branch agencies. The programing cycle begins approximately 18 months prior to the beginning of the budget year and ends sometime after the beginning of the budget year (depending on the timing of congressional authorization and appropriation) with operating instructions to the field. Thus, in addition to current operations, there are always two program cycles in being, though in different phases.The programing process involves the coordinator of the mutual security program and the International Cooperation Administration, both in the Department of State.
A. THE COORDINATOR OF THE MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM
The principal stages at which the coordinator actively participates in the programing process are as follows:
1. The issuance of policy and program guidance to the International Cooperation Administration and the Department of Defense for the development of the next fiscal year program.
2. Review of program proposals and estimates made by the International Cooperation Administration and the Department of Defense on the basis of screened field recommendations.
3. Submission of mutual security program estimates to the Bureau of the Budget.
4. Coordination of the presentation of the program to the Congress.
5. Review and approval of operational country programs after congressional action.

The coordinator looks to the chiefs of the diplomatic missions abroad for local coordination to insure that each country program, in all of its parts, promotes the security and foreign policy of the United States. During the field planning phase, the chiefs of missions are asked to review their programs to insure that: (1) There is a proper balance among the various elements, especially between military and economic assistance; (2) the cooperating country can effectively use the assistance recommended, and is prepared to take whatever actions are necessary for its effective use; (3) the recommended program will make an adequate and effective contribution to the implementation of U.S. policy; and (4) plans submitted to Washington clearly meet the question of whether the recommended program involves the minimum expenditure of U.S. resources required to achieve essential U.S. objectives.


B. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM

The first few months of the programing cycle are spent in seeking to improve the programing procedure in light of experience, and to alter it to fit any new or anticipated legislative requirements. Active exchange betweeen Washington and the field on programing matters begins in the early summer, some 9 months before the presentation of a total program to the Congress, and usually 13 or more months before the program becomes operational. This phase of the operation consists of five stages:


1. PREPARATION AND ISSUANCE OF ANNUAL GUIDELINES (JUNE-JULY)

The coordinator issues general policy guidelines to the chiefs of the diplomatic missions which include assumptions as to world conditions, U.S. policy objectives (in general and for individual areas and countries), the availability

____________________
1
By John Lindeman, International Economic Consultants of Washington.

-178-

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