Backdrop to Tragedy: The Struggle for Palestine

By William R. Polk; David M. Stamler et al. | Go to book overview

Question of the East" ( London, 1876) fully exploited. Thus with Gladstone's rise to power in 1880 the Sultan became even more antagonistic to any British proposals. Certainly it was clear to the Ottoman rulers that the concept of a British protectorate was motivated partly in some cases, and wholly so in others, by the desire to safeguard British lines of communication and interests in the Middle East. The scheme of Edward Cazalet, a British industrialist with interests in Russia, to establish a Protectorate of Palestine financed with private capital made as little headway as had the plans of Oliphant. His idea of a railway from the coast to the Euphrates served if anything to increase Turkish suspicions. No modification which he suggested--even to the extent of offering to accept any suitable area within the Ottoman Empire--could allay the fears of the Ottoman government. The succession of schemes--of Gawler, Oliphant, Cazalet, Crybbace, Bradshaw, Mitford, Ashe, and others--which emerged throughout these years came to naught. The birth of a Jewish Home could be achieved only with the help of the great powers, and the climate for such action was rapidly being created. The writings of Lessing, Moses Hess, Dumas fils, Marx, Engels, and Lasalle, the Italian Risorgimento, and the whole complex of the emancipatory movements all served to produce such a climate. However, the driving force had to come from the Jews themselves and a succession of outbreaks of violent anti-Semitism, particularly in eastern Europe, was soon to provide the stimulus.


2. THE EUROPEAN BACKGROUND

The assassination of Alexander II of Russia on March 1, 1881, may well have been indirectly one of the most decisive factors in the history of Zionism. On the morning of the day of his murder Alexander had signed the Loris-Melikov constitution. Though in no way a true democratic constitution, it provided nevertheless some basis from which a more democratic regime might have emerged. The accession of Tzar Alexander III--a

-139-

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Backdrop to Tragedy: The Struggle for Palestine
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vi
  • Maps viii
  • Tables ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Important Dates in the History of Palestine xiii
  • Part 1 - THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1
  • 1 - Out of the Past 3
  • 2 - The Coming of Islam 8
  • 3 - The Crusades 22
  • 4 - The Ottoman Empire 29
  • 5 - The Great Powers in the Middle East 34
  • 6 - The Sick Man of Europe 47
  • 7 - The First World War and Its Spore 55
  • 8 - Emir Feisal and Dr. Weizmann 64
  • 9 - Establishment of the Mandate 70
  • 11 - The Wisdom of Solomon 94
  • 12 - From War to War 106
  • 13 - Inquiries, Reports, and Plans 110
  • 14 - The Mandate's Last Bitter Days 126
  • Part II - JEWISH INTERESTS IN PALESTINE 131
  • 1 - The Age-Old Longing 133
  • 2 - The European Background 139
  • 3 - The Birth of Political Zionism 148
  • 4 - The Land of Promises 159
  • 5 - Internal Conflicts 170
  • 6 - The Seeds of Conflict 175
  • 7 - The War and the Biltmore Program 179
  • 8 - Anglo-American Reactions 185
  • 9 - Postwar and Economic 187
  • 10 - A United Nations Solution: the State is Born 194
  • 11 - East and West 197
  • 12 - Politics in Israel 205
  • 13 - Religion and the State 219
  • Part III - THE ARABS AND PALESTINE 223
  • 1 - "The Existing Non-Jewish Communities" 225
  • 2 - The Arab Gentry 241
  • 3 - The Arab Element in Arabism 246
  • 4 - Modern Arab Nationalism 254
  • 5 - The Reaction to Zionism 265
  • 6 - Pan-Arabism 273
  • 7 - War, Refugees, and Humiliation 286
  • Part IV - THE ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK OF THE PALESTINE PROBLEM 305
  • 1 - Introduction 307
  • 2 - The Mandate Period 309
  • 3 - The Land and Its People 312
  • 4 - Immigration and Land 324
  • 5 - Land and Capital 329
  • 6 - Economics of the Refugee Problem 336
  • 7 - The Economy of Israel 342
  • 8 - Economic Relations Between Israel and the Arabs 352
  • Part V - CONCLUSION 365
  • Conclusion 367
  • SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 375
  • Index 387
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