Backdrop to Tragedy: The Struggle for Palestine

By William R. Polk; David M. Stamler et al. | Go to book overview

had become a symbol of the ghetto and as such was to be discarded, Zionism became invested with religious fervor and zeal Zionist societies sprang up in every country. Aliyah became the symbol of every fine sentiment of self-denial and national assertion. Jewish religious and secular activities took a new lease on life. Schools, evening classes, folk songs, study groups, and political clubs of every description arose and flourished. Hebrew was studied as a living language by thousands for whom it had been but a vehicle of prayer. The feeling of belonging, of having roots and a home affected the outlook of even the least Zionist-inclined Jewish communities. The pent-up revolutionary zeal of those Jews who were cut off from and disillusioned with the Revolution was now channeled powerfully into Zionist as well as other political activities. Social and cultural institutions wholly non-Jewish in purpose found large numbers of Jews among their members. While the economic and political problems of Palestine were still vast, their solution was being made inevitable by the passionate driving force which was being created throughout the Jewish world.


5. INTERNAL CONFLICTS

The end of World War I saw the beginning of a period of great change in Palestine. For the first time immigration took place on a large scale, with some 150,000 Jews entering the country between 1919 and 1933.1 Though economically still very weak, particularly since the majority of the immigrants brought no capital with them,2 the collective settlements were gradually becoming more self-supporting, though they were for long to remain dependent upon outside help. The Histadrut, the Fed

____________________
1
This constituted about 22 per cent of the Jews who left Europe at this period.
2
By 1930 only 4 per cent of the immigrants possessed capital of £4,000 or more (information taken from 1938 Report of the Palestine Department of Migration).

-170-

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Backdrop to Tragedy: The Struggle for Palestine
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vi
  • Maps viii
  • Tables ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Important Dates in the History of Palestine xiii
  • Part 1 - THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1
  • 1 - Out of the Past 3
  • 2 - The Coming of Islam 8
  • 3 - The Crusades 22
  • 4 - The Ottoman Empire 29
  • 5 - The Great Powers in the Middle East 34
  • 6 - The Sick Man of Europe 47
  • 7 - The First World War and Its Spore 55
  • 8 - Emir Feisal and Dr. Weizmann 64
  • 9 - Establishment of the Mandate 70
  • 11 - The Wisdom of Solomon 94
  • 12 - From War to War 106
  • 13 - Inquiries, Reports, and Plans 110
  • 14 - The Mandate's Last Bitter Days 126
  • Part II - JEWISH INTERESTS IN PALESTINE 131
  • 1 - The Age-Old Longing 133
  • 2 - The European Background 139
  • 3 - The Birth of Political Zionism 148
  • 4 - The Land of Promises 159
  • 5 - Internal Conflicts 170
  • 6 - The Seeds of Conflict 175
  • 7 - The War and the Biltmore Program 179
  • 8 - Anglo-American Reactions 185
  • 9 - Postwar and Economic 187
  • 10 - A United Nations Solution: the State is Born 194
  • 11 - East and West 197
  • 12 - Politics in Israel 205
  • 13 - Religion and the State 219
  • Part III - THE ARABS AND PALESTINE 223
  • 1 - "The Existing Non-Jewish Communities" 225
  • 2 - The Arab Gentry 241
  • 3 - The Arab Element in Arabism 246
  • 4 - Modern Arab Nationalism 254
  • 5 - The Reaction to Zionism 265
  • 6 - Pan-Arabism 273
  • 7 - War, Refugees, and Humiliation 286
  • Part IV - THE ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK OF THE PALESTINE PROBLEM 305
  • 1 - Introduction 307
  • 2 - The Mandate Period 309
  • 3 - The Land and Its People 312
  • 4 - Immigration and Land 324
  • 5 - Land and Capital 329
  • 6 - Economics of the Refugee Problem 336
  • 7 - The Economy of Israel 342
  • 8 - Economic Relations Between Israel and the Arabs 352
  • Part V - CONCLUSION 365
  • Conclusion 367
  • SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 375
  • Index 387
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