SOUTH-EAST AFRICA, 1652-1671
In 1652 the ten years' truce between Portugal and the Netherlands expired, and fighting at once flared up in Ceylon. In the same year the Netherlands East India Company established a refreshment station at Table Bay, which ended Portugal's territorial monopoly of European settlement in southern Africa which she had enjoyed for nearly one hundred and fifty years. These events seemed at first to increase the threat to the Portuguese in south-east Africa. But hostilities did not become general, and came to an official end in 1669.1 The establishment of the station at Table Bay was an admission by the Netherlanders that they had abandoned their earlier designs to occupy Moçambique. In fact, 1652 became a year of promise to the Portuguese in the captaincy of Moçambique: an honest and zealous captain was appointed to that post, while in the Rivers the baptism of a young and pliant Monomotapa brought new hope for the development of Christianity and trade.
Francisco de Lima2 found S. Sebastião in its usual miserable state. The bastion that was being rebuilt was only half raised, and presented a breach to any enemy. He persuaded the overseer to continue his labours, and most of the essential works were soon completed. The garrison presented more of a problem. When he took over he found the soldiers mutinous -- only shortly before they had stabbed an officer to death. There was an almost complete lack of gunners, and there were few regular soldiers; he was forced to make do with substitutes.3
Francisco de Lima served well;4 his successors were of indifferent____________________