Many modern economists and officials, and some political analysts, use interchangeably the terms "growth" and "development" to refer not only to any increase in national wealth or income (economic growth), but also to technological progress, improvements in productivity, spread of industrialization, changes in economic structure, or socio-political shifts toward liberal democracy (development). More or less of any of these attributes can position a country, economy, or polity in some hierarchy or typology of modernity as more or less developed. A more analytical style restricts the term growth to an economic context in referring to "incremental increases (or expansions) in the levels, quantities, or sizes of particular variables relevant to the processes, issues, and outcomes under scrutiny."1 Thus, in the conventional context of national development, static growth would reflect increases in economic variables with little or no related national development; dynamic growth would involve increases in economic variables with significant parallel development. In a context of development economics, the hypothesis of disjunction of growth would suggest differences in levels of international conflict with some relationship to differences in national development.
In developing a structural model of the growth process, Hollis Chenery and Moises Syrquin expanded Kuznets' insight about a relationship between economic growth and structural change. Using their multidimensional approach to structural analysis they analyzed the process of growth across countries and over time. Chenery and Syrquin achieved results that replicated Kuznets' observations indicating "a period of accelerated structural change . . . followed by a deceleration,"2 and introduced trade and human capital as objective, analytic elements of growth. 3
Expanding Kuznets' earlier concepts they used the term "development" to encompass the two processes of economic growth and structural change operating in parallel. Predicting that growth brought structural change (which could readily be measured with well-known demographic and economic