The Forsaken People: Case Studies of the Internally Displaced

By Roberta Cohen; Francis M. Deng | Go to book overview

been going on for so many years, however, and that the human rights situation still requires many improvements, it may be timely to consider alternative forms of international activity and intervention. One area in which Sri Lanka seems to be in need of external assistance is in mediating peace; there appears to be no military solution to the conflict, and all political efforts to come to a negotiated solution have failed. Hundreds of thousands of people have been victimized for the sake of extremist elements on both sides.

In the area of human rights, monitoring by human rights organizations and publication of their findings would contribute to the security of the people. UNDP and the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights should consider establishing a human rights and humanitarian liaison office to process such information and advise on common strategies to be adopted by the resident agencies, and where appropriate, by NGOs and donors as well. Advocacy on human rights issues should become a central element of the work of United Nations agencies and international NGOs.


Notes
1.
Government of Sri Lanka, Ministry of Shipping, Ports, Rehabilitation, and Reconstruction, "Report on Implementation of the Development Programmes," Colombo, September 1995, p. 1.
2.
The exception is those who crossed the Jaffna Lagoon to Kilinochchi, who were displaced once more when the government forces took the town in September 1996.
3.
Another group one finds in Sri Lanka are the Burghers, who are descendants of the Dutch, either in direct line or intermarried with other groups.
4.
See also Bernard Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism ( London: Verso Editions/NLB, 1983), p. 26.
5.
Sri Lanka has been described as the "island of the two minorities": while the Sinhala are a majority on the island, they form a minority in relation to the 50 million Tamils of neighboring South India. Each ethnic group constantly feels under siege by the other.
6.
In 1964 an agreement was reached between India and Sri Lanka by which India would take back 575,000 Indian Tamils who had not opted for Sri Lankan citizenship in 1948 and thereafter had become disenfranchised, while Sri Lanka would grant citizenship to about 300,000 of them. The agreement was only partially carried out. By 1988, however, Sri Lanka had promised to grant citizenship to the remaining 250,000 stateless plantation Tamils.
7.
By disenfranchising the Indian Tamils, the government also sought to weaken the left-wing parties, which drew considerable support from the former. Tamils claimed this was a deliberate attempt to "colonize" strategic areas of the

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The Forsaken People: Case Studies of the Internally Displaced
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Foreword vii
  • Contents xi
  • Acronyms xiii
  • Chapter One - Introduction 1
  • Notes 14
  • Chapter Two - Burundi: A Patchwork of Displacement 15
  • Conclusions 52
  • Notes 54
  • Chapter Three - Rwanda's Internally Displaced: A Conundrum within a Conundrum 57
  • Notes 89
  • Chapter Four - Liberia: A Nation Displaced 97
  • Conclusions 130
  • Epilogue: 1996-98 134
  • Notes 134
  • Chapter Five - The Sudan: Cradle of Displacement 139
  • Notes 170
  • Chapter Six - Dealing with the Displacement and Suffering Caused by Yugoslavia's Wars 175
  • Conclusion 216
  • Chapter Seven - Internal Displacement in the North Caucasus, Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Georgia 232
  • Conclusion 301
  • Notes 304
  • Chapter Eight Turmoil in Tajikistan: Addressing the Crisis of Internal Displacement 313
  • Conclusions 350
  • Notes 353
  • Chapter Nine Sri Lanka's Vicious Circle of Displacement 359
  • Conclusions 393
  • Notes 396
  • Chapter Ten In Search of Hope: The Plight of Displaced Columbians 399
  • Conclusions and Recommendations 433
  • Notes 440
  • Chapter Eleven Will Peru's Displaced Return? 455
  • Conclusions 486
  • Notes 494
  • About the Contributors 500
  • Index 504
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