Living with the Bomb: American and Japanese Cultural Conflicts in the Nuclear Age

By Mark Selden; Laura Hein | Go to book overview

long years since then, years spent in private mourning and ill health, stretching into five decades of living with the bomb.


Notes
1.
On these themes, see Enola Gay: The First Atomic Mission, video produced in 1995 by Jonathan S. Felt as part of the final Enola Gay exhibit at the Smithsonian Institution.
2.
For more than fifty years, atomic casualty figures have been no less contested than those of the Holocaust and the Nanjing massacre. The most comprehensive and reliable discussion of various casualty estimates remains that provided in the Committee for the Compilation of Materials on Damage Caused in the Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, The Physical, Medical and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombs ( New York: Basic Books, 1981), 335-92. The committee concluded that total deaths attributable to the bombings were in the range of 140,000 in Hiroshima and 70,000 in Nagasaki, the great majority of which occurred within months of the explosions. For a recent discussion of Japanese government fatality statistics, see John Dower, "Three Narratives of Our Humanity," in History Wars: The Enola Gay Controversy and Other Battles for the American Past, Edward Linenthal and Thomas Engelhardt, eds. ( New York: Metropolitan Books, 1996).
3.
The fullest discussion of the Truman statement is Robert Lifton and Greg Mitchell , Hiroshima in America: Fifty Years of Denial ( New York: Putnam, 1995), 8-22.
4.
Michael Sherry, The Rise of American Air Power: The Creation of Armageddon ( New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977); Mark Selden, "The 'Good War': Air Power and the Logic of Mass Destruction," Contention: Debates in Society, Culture, and Science 13 (fall 1995): 113-32.
5.
Henry Stimson, "The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb," Harper's ( February 1947): 97-107. Barton Bernstein's meticulous research revealed that Pentagon planners estimated forty-six thousand U.S. deaths in the event of a November landing in Kyushu and a subsequent landing in Tokyo. Barton Bernstein, "Seizing the Contested Terrain of Nuclear History," Diplomatic History 17, no. 1 (winter 1993): 35-72.
6.
The announcement was on August 15 in Japan but August 14 across the dateline in the United States. The official English translation of the Imperial Rescript ending the war is reprinted in Edwin P. Hoyt Japan's War: The Great Pacific Conflict, 1863- 1952 ( New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986), 437-38.
7.
For the transformation of the emperor at the end of the war, see Herbert Bix, "The Showa Emperor's 'Monologue' and the Problem of War Responsibility," Journal of Japanese Studies 18 (summer 1992): 295-363; and Bix, "Japan's Delayed Surrender: A Reinterpretation," Diplomatic History 19, no. 2 (spring 1995): 197-226.
8.
The Japanese leaders knew by June 1945 that the United States had amassed evidence in order to put them on trial for war crimes. Philip R. Piccigallo, The Japanese on Trial: Allied War Crimes Operations in the East, 1945- 1951 ( Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979), 4, 22.
9.
Odagiri Hideo, ed., Shinbun Shiryo: Genbaku (Newspaper Materials: The Atomic Bomb), vol. 1 ( Tokyo: Nihon Tosho Senta, 1987), 13. This two-volume work reproduces the reportage on the bomb from Japan's leading newspapers over two decades.
10.
For a recent review of this literature, see J. Samuel Walker, "History, Collective Memory, and the Decision to Use the Bomb," Diplomatic History 19, no. 2 (spring 1995): 319-28.

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