Living with the Bomb: American and Japanese Cultural Conflicts in the Nuclear Age

By Mark Selden; Laura Hein | Go to book overview

Notes
I.
On the "A-bomb question" in Japanese memory, the best collection of sources is Odagiri Hideo, ed., Shinbun shiryo: Genbaku (Newspaper materials: The atomic bomb) ( Tokyo: Nichon Tosho Senta, 1987- 1988), which contains, in two large volumes, a wide variety of clippings from eight major newspapers from 1945 to 1980.
2.
See, for example, Asada Sadao, Busshu daitoryo to genbaku toka mondai" (President Bush and the A-bomb question), Sankei Shinbun, December 4, 1991.
3.
Asada, 'Genbaku kitte' ga kataru mono" (The meaning of the "A-bomb stamp"), Sankei Shinbun, December 21, 1994. For an English translation, see "The Flap over the A-Bomb Stamp: How Japanese and American Historical Perceptions Differ," Japan Echo 22 (summer 1995): 79.
4.
The breakdown of the reaction of Hiroshima--Nagasaki residents to the atomic bombing was as follows: fear/terror (47%); fear for own life (16%); admiration--impressed by the scientific power behind the bomb (26%); jealousy--why couldn't Japan make such a bomb? (3%); anger--bomb is cruel, inhuman, barbarous (17%); hatred of United States specifically because of A-bomb use (2%); no reaction indicated (11%). United States Strategic Bombing Survey, Effects of Strategic Bombing on Japanese Morale, Report on the Pacific War, no. 14 ( Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947), 3, 91-97.
5.
Monica Braw, The Atomic Bomb Suppressed: American Censorship in Occupied Japan, 1945-1949 (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1991), 92, 102-3, 151. The former members of the Civil Censorship Division of the General Headquarters recently testified that there were relatively few instances of deletion by the occupation authorities. The Japanese media, they said, practiced self-control. Asahi Shinbun. May 15, 1994.
6.
John Hersey, Hiroshima ( New York: Penguin, 1946); Japanese translation by Ishikawa Kinichi and Tanimoto Hiroshi ( Tokyo: Hosei Daigaku Shuppankai, 1949).
7.
P. M.S. Blackett, Fear, War, and the Bomb ( New York: Whittlesey, 1949); originally published as Military and Political Consequences of Atomic Energy ( London: 1948); Japanese translation by Tanaka Shinjiro ( Tokyo: Hosei Daigaku Shuppankai, 1951).
8.
Mainichi Shinbun, August 3, 1970.
9.
Chugoku Shinbun, July 23, 1971.
10.
Public Papers of the Presidents: Harry S Truman, 1945 ( Washington, DC: 1961), 203-14. It was only after this paper was published in its original form that I read Robert Litton and Greg Mitchell, Hiroshima in America: Fifty Years of Denial ( New York: Grossett Putnam, 1995)--the most detailed and systematic examination of American reaction to the bomb.
11.
Studs Terkel, "The Good War": Oral History of World War II ( New York: Pantheon Books, 1984).
12.
Paul Fussell, "Thank God for the Atom Bomb--Hiroshima: A Soldier's View," New Republic, August 22-29, 1981, 26-30.
13.
Paul S. Boyer, By the Bomb's Early Light: American Thought and Culture at the Dawn of the Atomic Age ( New York: Pantheon Books, 1985), 183-84; Spencer R. Weart , Nuclear Fear: A History of images ( Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988), 106-9. For an overall treatment of the half-century since 1945, see Allan M. Winkler , Life under a Cloud: American Anxiety about the Atom ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).
14.
Michael J. Yavenditti, "The American People and the Use of Atomic Bombs on Japan: The 1940s," Historian 36 ( February 1974): 224-47; Yavenditti, "John Hersey and the American Conscience: The Reception of 'Hiroshima,''" Pacific Historical Review 43

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