do emerge from that analysis should be interpreted. Hertzog and Yuasa ( 1988) discussed this and other the substantive issues regarding the mental rotation task in detail. The important point, analytically, is that we have learned much more from formulating and testing specific substantive hypotheses with corresponding statistical tests. The selection of analysis strategy ought not be driven by cookbook or by some presumably optimal set of decision rules (even of the type implied by Figs. 9.1 and 9.2). Instead it ought to be driven by a concern to make appropriate use of statistical inference (including control of the Type I error rate while minimizing the Type II error rate) in directly testing substantive hypotheses of interest.
I'm grateful to the National Institute on Aging for a Research Career Development Award (K04 AG00335), which gave me time to work on this chapter. This manuscript would not have been produced without the skillful help of Debra Jennings and Patti Morgan, who revised text and corrected Greek symbols in too many drafts to count.
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