Latin America, Its Problems and Its Promise: A Multidisciplinary Introduction

By Jan Knippers Black | Go to book overview

9
THE LATIN AMERICAN ECONOMIES RESTRUCTURE, AGAIN

WILLIAM P. GLADE

Recent years have brought a lively interest in Latin American economic restructuring, both on the part of the policy community in the countries involved and by scholars, development experts, and journalists who in their respective ways are concerned with studying and reporting on what is happening. If this literature does not yet amount to an equivalent of the Harvard 5-foot shelf of books that decorated so many American homes earlier in this century, it may soon exceed that number of linear feet -- even if it never acquires the cachet of the older volumes as a documentation of household literacy.

It almost defies good judgment to try to compress into one short essay the complexity and variety that currently characterize the Latin American economies, which range from the semigiant dimensions of an economically dynamic Brazil, the eighth largest GDP in the world, to tiny and deeply impoverished Haiti, which ranks among the poorest nations of the world and is of negligible importance to anyone but Haitians. Just about every combination of size and income level and, correspondingly, structure of national production can be found in between -- along with an exceedingly complicated medley of geographical and climatic conditions. Nevertheless, with the exception of Haiti, Honduras, and Nicaragua, the countries of the region have at least made it out of the poorest category in the World Bank's four-category classification scheme and are more or less firmly ensconced in the lower middle income and upper middle income categories. 1

Performance, recently as well as historically, has been no less varied, though all the countries have since the 1970s been outdistanced in this respect by Asian "tigers," both old and new. It might seem foolhardy to inject an historical dimension into what is unavoidably an already overly baroque narrative of development and back-

-145-

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Latin America, Its Problems and Its Promise: A Multidisciplinary Introduction
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • MAPS, TABLES, FIGURES, AND ILLUSTRATIONS xi
  • I - INTRODUCTION: THE EVOLUTION OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 1
  • Notes 16
  • PART ONE - THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE 19
  • 2 - PHYSICAL LANDSCAPE AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS 21
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 39
  • 3 - THE INDIAN POPULATIONS OF LATIN AMERICA 40
  • Notes 53
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 54
  • PART TWO - HISTORICAL SETTING 57
  • 4 - COLONIAL LATIN AMERICA 59
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 67
  • 5 - THE CONTINUITY OF THE NATIONAL PERIOD 69
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 86
  • PART THREE - CULTURAL EXPRESSION 89
  • 6 - PHILOSOPHY AND THE INTELLECTUAL TRADITION 91
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 101
  • 7 - LATIN AMERICAN LITERATURE 104
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 121
  • 8 - NATIONALISM AND MODERN LATIN AMERICAN ART 124
  • Notes 137
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 137
  • PART FOUR - ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES 143
  • 9 - THE LATIN AMERICAN ECONOMIES RESTRUCTURE, AGAIN 145
  • Notes 156
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 159
  • 10 - SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND CHANGE IN LATIN AMERICA 162
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 179
  • 11 - NATURE IN LATIN AMERICA: IMAGES AND ISSUES 181
  • Notes 196
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 199
  • PART FIVE - POLITICAL PROCESSES AND TRENDS 201
  • 12 - PARTICIPATION AND POLITICAL PROCESS: THE COLLAPSIBLE PYRAMID 203
  • Notes 229
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 230
  • 13 - THE POLITICS OF INSECURITY 232
  • Notes 249
  • PART SIX - EXTERNAL RELATIONS 255
  • 14 - INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN LATIN AMERICA: CONFLICT AND COOPERATIONS 257
  • Notes 270
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 271
  • 15 - THE UNITED STATES AND LATIN AMERICA: INTO A NEW ERA 273
  • Notes 293
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 295
  • 16 - LATIN AMERICA IN THE WORLD 296
  • Notes 309
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 311
  • PART SEVEN - MEXICO 315
  • 17 - MEXICO: HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS 317
  • Notes 336
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 336
  • 18 - MEXICO: THE PERMANENT CRISIS 338
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 347
  • PART EIGHT - CENTRAL AMERICA AND PANAMA 349
  • 19 - CENTRAL AMERICA: BACKGROUND TO THE CRISIS 351
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 378
  • 20 - CENTRAL AMERICA: FROM REVOLUTION TO NEOLIBERAL "REFORM" 380
  • Notes 394
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 396
  • 21 - PANAMA AND THE CANAL 397
  • Notes 408
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 409
  • PART NINE - CUBA AND THE CARIBBEAN 411
  • 22 - THE CUBAN REVOLUTION 413
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 435
  • 23 - THE CARIBBEAN: THE STRUCTURE OF MODERN-CONSERVATIVE SOCIETIES 436
  • Notes 451
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 452
  • PART TEN - THE ANDES 453
  • 24 - VENEZUELA, COLOMBIA, AND ECUADOR 455
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 473
  • 25 - PERU AND BOLIVIA 475
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 493
  • PART ELEVEN - THE SOUTHERN CONE 495
  • 26 - CHILE: THE DEVELOPMENT, BREAKDOWN, AND RECOVERY OF DEMOCRACY 497
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 534
  • 27 - ARGENTINA: DECLINE AND REVIVAL 536
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 549
  • 28 - URUGUAY AND PARAGUAY: AN ARDUOUS TRANSITION 551
  • Notes 571
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 572
  • PART TWELVE - BRAZIL 575
  • 29 - BRAZIL: FROM INDEPENDENCE TO 1964 577
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 589
  • 30 - BRAZIL: MILITOCRACY AND FRUSTRATED DEMOCRATIZATION 591
  • Notes 604
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 605
  • 31 - CONCLUSION: AN INTEGRATED NEIGHBORHOOD 607
  • Notes 618
  • ABOUT THE BOOK AND EDITOR 619
  • ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS 621
  • Index 627
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