Latin America, Its Problems and Its Promise: A Multidisciplinary Introduction

By Jan Knippers Black | Go to book overview

tor. Environmentalists and defenders of the rights of indigenous peoples were stunned by the issuance of a presidential decree on January 9, 1996, allowing loggers, miners, farmers, and business owners to contest in court the boundaries of areas set aside as nature and indigenous reserves.

To those who have fought long and hard for the resurrection of democracy, Brazil's party and electoral systems still represent unfinished business and in many ways a project derailed. The kind of democracy that is compatible with the new version of free enterprise may be the best that money can buy. With campaign contributions routinely in the millions of dollars, corruption becomes institutionalized and virtually all politicians are to some degree vulnerable, though Brazil has avoided some of the worst abuses of the process seen in the United States by requiring that television stations offer free time for live appearances by major candidates.

The combination of intraparty and interparty contests in a single "open list" for congressional offices reinforces the tendency to personalism and party fragmentation and leaves an electorate that is largely semiliterate with an overly challenging task. 11 Party stability is further challenged by the ease with which elected officials change from one to another. It was reported in October 1995 that forty-three members of the National Congress had switched parties in the previous eight months.

The strengths of Brazilian democracy are manifest in the fact that both of the major contenders in the last presidential election -- Fernando Henrique Cardoso, the extraordinarily sophisticated and insightful social scientist, and Lula, the skillful community organizer and eloquent spokesman of popular interests -- are a cut above the best in the political stables of most countries of North or South. The weaknesses of the system are set in relief by the enormity of the challenge they face. These two remarkable men have in general continued to treat each other with respect and to keep open the crucial channels of communication. But it is not clear that the best of their efforts would suffice to bring about an upward shift in burden sharing and to bridge the country's ever-growing gap between rich and poor.


NOTES
1
For an extensive discussion of the "basic dualism of Brazilian society," see Helio Jaguaribe , Alternativas do Brasil ( Rio de Janeiro: José Olympia Editora, 1989), chapter 2.
2
. Edmar Bacha and Herbert S. Klein, eds., A Transio Incompleta: Brasil desde 1945, volume I, Populaç/Emprego/Agricultural/Urbanizaçăo, and volume 2, Desigualdade Social/Educaço/Saude Previdenci ( Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra, 1986).
3
Jaguaribe, Alternativas do Brasil, p. 27.
4
For in-depth coverage of the coup and its aftermath, see René A. Dreifuss, 1964. A Conquista do Estado: Açāo Política, Poder e Golpe do Estado (Petrópolis: Editora Vozes, 1981).
5
See Edmar Bacha and Malan in Alfred Stepan, ed., Democratizing Brazil: Problems of Transition and Consolidation ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), p. 123. The "miracle" was fueled by the "peace" between labor and management imposed by the army: Strikes were declared illegal and the army broke any attempts to strike.

-604-

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Latin America, Its Problems and Its Promise: A Multidisciplinary Introduction
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • MAPS, TABLES, FIGURES, AND ILLUSTRATIONS xi
  • I - INTRODUCTION: THE EVOLUTION OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 1
  • Notes 16
  • PART ONE - THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE 19
  • 2 - PHYSICAL LANDSCAPE AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS 21
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 39
  • 3 - THE INDIAN POPULATIONS OF LATIN AMERICA 40
  • Notes 53
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 54
  • PART TWO - HISTORICAL SETTING 57
  • 4 - COLONIAL LATIN AMERICA 59
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 67
  • 5 - THE CONTINUITY OF THE NATIONAL PERIOD 69
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 86
  • PART THREE - CULTURAL EXPRESSION 89
  • 6 - PHILOSOPHY AND THE INTELLECTUAL TRADITION 91
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 101
  • 7 - LATIN AMERICAN LITERATURE 104
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 121
  • 8 - NATIONALISM AND MODERN LATIN AMERICAN ART 124
  • Notes 137
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 137
  • PART FOUR - ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES 143
  • 9 - THE LATIN AMERICAN ECONOMIES RESTRUCTURE, AGAIN 145
  • Notes 156
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 159
  • 10 - SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND CHANGE IN LATIN AMERICA 162
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 179
  • 11 - NATURE IN LATIN AMERICA: IMAGES AND ISSUES 181
  • Notes 196
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 199
  • PART FIVE - POLITICAL PROCESSES AND TRENDS 201
  • 12 - PARTICIPATION AND POLITICAL PROCESS: THE COLLAPSIBLE PYRAMID 203
  • Notes 229
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 230
  • 13 - THE POLITICS OF INSECURITY 232
  • Notes 249
  • PART SIX - EXTERNAL RELATIONS 255
  • 14 - INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN LATIN AMERICA: CONFLICT AND COOPERATIONS 257
  • Notes 270
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 271
  • 15 - THE UNITED STATES AND LATIN AMERICA: INTO A NEW ERA 273
  • Notes 293
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 295
  • 16 - LATIN AMERICA IN THE WORLD 296
  • Notes 309
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 311
  • PART SEVEN - MEXICO 315
  • 17 - MEXICO: HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS 317
  • Notes 336
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 336
  • 18 - MEXICO: THE PERMANENT CRISIS 338
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 347
  • PART EIGHT - CENTRAL AMERICA AND PANAMA 349
  • 19 - CENTRAL AMERICA: BACKGROUND TO THE CRISIS 351
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 378
  • 20 - CENTRAL AMERICA: FROM REVOLUTION TO NEOLIBERAL "REFORM" 380
  • Notes 394
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 396
  • 21 - PANAMA AND THE CANAL 397
  • Notes 408
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 409
  • PART NINE - CUBA AND THE CARIBBEAN 411
  • 22 - THE CUBAN REVOLUTION 413
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 435
  • 23 - THE CARIBBEAN: THE STRUCTURE OF MODERN-CONSERVATIVE SOCIETIES 436
  • Notes 451
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 452
  • PART TEN - THE ANDES 453
  • 24 - VENEZUELA, COLOMBIA, AND ECUADOR 455
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 473
  • 25 - PERU AND BOLIVIA 475
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 493
  • PART ELEVEN - THE SOUTHERN CONE 495
  • 26 - CHILE: THE DEVELOPMENT, BREAKDOWN, AND RECOVERY OF DEMOCRACY 497
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 534
  • 27 - ARGENTINA: DECLINE AND REVIVAL 536
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 549
  • 28 - URUGUAY AND PARAGUAY: AN ARDUOUS TRANSITION 551
  • Notes 571
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 572
  • PART TWELVE - BRAZIL 575
  • 29 - BRAZIL: FROM INDEPENDENCE TO 1964 577
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 589
  • 30 - BRAZIL: MILITOCRACY AND FRUSTRATED DEMOCRATIZATION 591
  • Notes 604
  • SUGGESTED READINGS 605
  • 31 - CONCLUSION: AN INTEGRATED NEIGHBORHOOD 607
  • Notes 618
  • ABOUT THE BOOK AND EDITOR 619
  • ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS 621
  • Index 627
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